Modern Turkey dates from 1922, when Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938) replaced the Sultanate with a republic. From 1923 to 1938 he was president.
In the 1920s he tried to modernize Turkey by a) blocking Islam and making Turkey a non-religious state by law (still in force) b) having Turkish written in the Latin ABC, not the Arabic. c) having a state monopoly of tobacco and alcohol (like the French Régie) d) making people adopt surnames e) even abolishing the fez and allowing only European hats f) having European education
However, he also moved the capital from the vulnerable Istanbul deep into Turkey, to Ankara (ex-Angora).
Politics and GovernmentEdit
President: Recep Tayyib Erdogan.
Capital: Ankara; replaced Istanbul.
The "Kemalist" party, guardian of Atatuerk's secularism, is the Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi - CHU - Republican People's Party. Currently in opposition.
Finances and EconomicsEdit
There are ongoing military activities against Kurdish independentists in SW Turkey and on the border with Iraq.
Police and Security forcesEdit
Culture and SocietyEdit
Officially a secular state but most Turks are Moslem. Many Kurdish Turks follow the Kurdish religion, which involves the adoration of angels.
The Army and the CHU party see themselves as guardians of Kemal Atatuerk's secularism.
Traditionally Turkey is tolerant of Jews and intolerant of Greeks, Kurds and Armenians.
Sciences and TechnologiesEdit
Increasing numbers of cars are being built here. The Renault factories are controversial in France.