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The Timurid Empire was a Turco-Mongolic empire that encompassed modern-day Iran, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, and parts of Pakistan, Turkey, and Syria.

The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan, and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin.

The ruling Timurid dynasty or Timurids lost most of Persia to the Ag Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.

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