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The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions.

Note: Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a more practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here.

Paleolithic eraEdit

See also: Paleolithic

Note: BP means "Before Present".

10th millennium BCEEdit

9th millennium BCEEdit

8th millennium BCEEdit

7th millennium BCEEdit

6th millennium BCEEdit

5th millennium BCEEdit

4th millennium BCEEdit

3rd millennium BCEEdit

2nd millennium BCEEdit

1st millennium BCEEdit

8th century BCEEdit

7th century BCEEdit

6th century BCEEdit

5th century BCEEdit

5th century BCEEdit

4th century BCEEdit

3rd century BCEEdit

2nd century BCEEdit

1st century BCEEdit

1st millennium CEEdit

1st centuryEdit

2nd centuryEdit


3rd centuryEdit

4th centuryEdit

5th centuryEdit

6th centuryEdit

7th centuryEdit

8th centuryEdit

9th centuryEdit

10th centuryEdit

2nd millenniumEdit

11th centuryEdit

12th centuryEdit

13th centuryEdit

14th centuryEdit

15th centuryEdit

16th centuryEdit

17th centuryEdit

18th centuryEdit

19th centuryEdit

1800sEdit

1810sEdit

1820sEdit

1830sEdit

1840sEdit

1850sEdit

1860sEdit

1870sEdit

1880sEdit

1890sEdit

20th centuryEdit

1900sEdit

1910sEdit

1920sEdit

1930sEdit

1940sEdit

1950sEdit

1960sEdit

1970sEdit

1980sEdit

1990sEdit

3rd millenniumEdit

21st centuryEdit

2000sEdit

2010sEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Harvard Gazette, Invention of cooking drove evolution of the human species
  2. Harvard Gazette, Invention of cooking drove evolution of the human species
  3. Hadfield, Peter, Gimme Shelter
  4. Earliest evidence of art found
  5. Evolving in their graves: early burials hold clues to human origins
  6. Bruton, Eric (1979). The History of Clocks and Watches. New York: Crescent Books. ISBN 0-517-37744-6. 
  7. Scott Elias (12 September 2012). Origins of Human Innovation and Creativity. Elsevier. pp. 28. ISBN 978-0-444-53821-5. 
  8. "News in Science - Shell beads suggest new roots for culture - 23/06/2006". http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s1670011.htm. Retrieved on 23 October 2017. 
  9. Wadley L, Sievers C, Bamford M, Goldberg P, Berna F, Miller C. (2011). Middle Stone Age Bedding Construction and Settlement Patterns at Sibudu, South Africa. Science 9 December 2011: Vol. 334 no. 6061 pp. 1388-1391
  10. 10.0 10.1 Backwell L, d'Errico F, Wadley L.(2008). Middle Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35:1566-1580.Error: Bad DOI specified!
  11. Jennifer Viegas (31 March 2008). "Early Weapon Evidence Reveals Bloody Past". Discovery News. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/03/31/earliest-weapon-human.html. 
  12. Pegg, Jr., Ed, Lebombo Bone
  13. "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man" (2009). Science 325 (5946). doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a. PMID 19745126. 
  14. "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers" (2009). Science 325 (5946). doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. 
  15. Small, Meredith F. (April 2002). "String theory: the tradition of spinning raw fibers dates back 28,000 years. (At The Museum)". Natural History 111.3. 
  16. Keddie, Grant, The Atlatl Weapon[dead link]
  17. "Chinese pottery may be earliest discovered." Associated Press. 2009-06-01
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14 18.15 18.16 18.17 18.18 18.19 18.20 Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions, Encyclopædia Britannica
  19. Stone age man used dentist drill. BBC News.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Piotr Bienkowski; Alan Millard (15 April 2010). Dictionary of the Ancient Near East. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-8122-2115-2. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 D. T. Potts (2012). A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. p. 285. 
  22. Loewe (1968), 170–171.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Deng, Gang. (1997). Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development, c. 2100 B.C.-1900 A.D. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29212-4, p. 22.
  24. Miriam T. Stark (15 April 2008). Archaeology of Asia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4051-5303-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=z4_bT2SJ-HUC&pg=PA130. Retrieved on 5 October 2012. 
  25. Carter, Robert "Boat remains and maritime trade in the Persian Gulf during the sixth and fifth millennia BC"Antiquity Volume 80 No.307 March 2006 [1]
  26. Kulke, Hermann & Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India. Routledge. 22. ISBN 0415329205.
  27. Jane McIntosh (2008), The Ancient Indus Valley, p.333
  28. "First Evidence of Cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakistan: Analysis of Mineralized Fibres from a Copper Bead" (2002). Journal of Archaeological Science 29 (12): 1393–1401. doi:10.1006/jasc.2001.0779. 
  29. "Dashing Finns were first to get their skates on 5,000 years ago". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/science/article3090363.ece. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  30. "The Question of Meteoritic versus Smelted Nickel-Rich Iron: Archaeological Evidence and Experimental Results" (1989). World Archaeology 20 (3): 403–421. doi:10.1080/00438243.1989.9980081. 
  31. "Bronocice, Flintbek, Uruk, JEbel Aruda and Arslantepe: The Earliest Evidence Of Wheeled Vehicles In Europe And The Near East" (December 2006). Palaeohistoria 47/48: 10-28 (11). University of Groningen. 
  32. M J Brownstein (June 15, 1993). "A brief history of opiates, opioid peptides, and opioid receptors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90 (12): 5391–5393. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.12.5391. PMID 8390660. 
  33. PBS Frontline (1997). "The Opium Kings". https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/heroin/etc/history.html. Retrieved on May 16, 2007. 
  34. A.K. Sharma; Seema Wahad; Raśmī Śrīvāstava (2010). Agriculture Diversification: Problems and Perspectives. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 140. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 John Coleman Darnell (2006). "The Wadi of the Horus Qa-a: A Tableau of Royal Ritual Power in the Theban Western Desert". Yale. https://web.archive.org/web/20110201053044/http://www.yale.edu/egyptology/ae_alamat_wadi_horus.htm. Retrieved on 2010-08-24. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 The sea-craft of prehistory, p76, by Paul Johnstone, Routledge, 1980
  37. Rodda & Ubertini (2004), The Basis of Civilization--water Science?, p. 161, International Association of Hydrological Science, ISBN 1901502570
  38. Harriet Crawford, Sumer and the Sumerians, Cambridge University Press, (New York 1993), ISBN 0-521-38850-3, page 73
  39. "Tchogha Zanbil". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/113. "It is the largest ziggurat outside of Mesopotamia and the best preserved of this type of stepped pyramidal monument." 
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 Teresi, Dick; et al. (2002), Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya, pp. 351-2, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-83718-8
  41. Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-471-39671-0. 
  42. Ghosh (1990), page 83
  43. Davreu (1978), pages 121-129
  44. Pruthi (2004), pages 225-270
  45. Rodda, J. C. and Ubertini, Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization - Water Science? pg 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004).
  46. Livingston & Beach, 20
  47. Kryss Katsiavriades and Talaat Qureshi, Inventions - 3000 BCE to 2000 BCE.
  48. Lal, R. (August 2001), "Thematic evolution of ISTRO: transition in scientific issues and research focus from 1955 to 2000", Soil and Tillage Research 61 (1-2): 3-12 [3] 
  49. Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee, page 14
  50. 50.0 50.1 Dales (1974)
  51. Rao, S. R. (1985), Lothal, pp. 27–8, Archaeological Survey of India
  52. Whitelaw, page 14
  53. Sherman, David M. (2002). Tending Animals in the Global Village. Blackwell Publishing. 46. ISBN 0683180517.
  54. "Games and Amusement: Dice". Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology edited by A. Ghosh (1990), 1: 178-179, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9004092641
  55. Bhardwaj, H.C. & Jain, K.K., "Indian Dyes and Industry During 18th-19th Century", Indian Journal of History of Science, 17 (11): 70-81, New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy.
  56. Keay, John (2001), India: A History, 13-14, Grove Press, ISBN 0802137970.
  57. Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro
  58. Rodda, J.C. and Ubertini, Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization – Water Science? p. 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004).
  59. Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-471-39671-0. 
  60. David S. Anthony, The Horse, The Wheel and Language: How bronze age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world (2007), pp. 397-405.
  61. Stephen Chrisomalis (2010). Numerical Notation: A Comparative History. p. 247. https://books.google.nl/books?id=ux--OWgWvBQC&pg=PA247#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  62. Thrusfield, page 2
  63. Akanuma, H. (2005). "The significance of the composition of excavated iron fragments taken from Stratum III at the site of Kaman-Kalehöyük, Turkey". Anatolian Archaeological Studies 14: 147–158. Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology. 
  64. "Ironware piece unearthed from Turkey found to be oldest steel". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2009-03-26. https://web.archive.org/web/20090329111924/http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/001200903261611.htm. Retrieved on 27 March 2009. 
  65. "World's Greatest Inventions". http://whoinvented.blogspot.com//2008/05/inventions-2nd-millennium-bc-2000-bc-to.html.. Retrieved on 26 March 2018. 
  66. Berlev, Oleg (1997). "Bureaucrats". in Donadoni, Sergio. The Egyptians. Trans. Bianchi, Robert et al.. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-226-15555-2. OCLC 35808323. 
  67. One of world's oldest sundials dug up in Kings' Valley, Upper Egypt
  68. History Channel, Where Did It Come From? Episode: "Ancient China: Agriculture"
  69. http://www.michaelppowers.com/prosperity/coins.htm.
  70. Alter, page 88
  71. Craddock, P. T. et al. (1983), "Zinc production in medieval India", World Archaeology 15 (2), Industrial Archaeology, p. 13
  72. 72.0 72.1 History of Ondol
  73. Koppel (2007), page 217
  74. A World of Glass
  75. Needham (1986), volume 6 part 5 105-106
  76. 76.0 76.1 Zaheer Baber (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, p. 23, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199
  77. "Review of Ancient Wisdom of Qanat, and Suggestions for Future Water Management" (PDF). www.e-sciencecentral.org. p. 57.
  78. "APPLICATION OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURE AS SUSTAINABLE APPROACH TO MITIGATION OF SHORTAGE WATER SUPPLY IN DESERT REGIONS" (PDF). universitypublications.net. p. 125.
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 79.3 Surgical Instruments from Ancient Rome
  80. Roman period surgery set on show, BBC
  81. 81.0 81.1 Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 521.
  82. Kriger, Colleen E. & Connah, Graham (2006), Cloth in West African History, p. 120, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 0759104220
  83. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "jute"
  84. 84.0 84.1 84.2 84.3 [2]
  85. Rolph, George (1873). Something about sugar: its history, growth, manufacture and distribution. San Francisco: J.J. Newbegin. https://archive.org/details/somethingaboutsu00rolprich. 
  86. Stephanie Dalley, The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: an elusive World Wonder traced, (2013), OUP ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5
  87. "Sennacherib, Archimedes, and the Water Screw: The Context of Invention in the Ancient World" (2003). Technology and Culture 44 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1353/tech.2003.0011. 
  88. Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China 4(2) (1965), p. 352.
  89. Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China 4(2) (1965), p. 352.
  90. 90.0 90.1 Everwondered? (31 May 2008). "World's Greatest Inventions: Inventions: 1st millennium BC (1000 BC to 1 BC)". http://whoinvented.blogspot.com.au/2008/05/1st-millennium-bc-encompasses-iron-age.html. Retrieved on 26 March 2018. 
  91. Finger (2001), page 66
  92. Srinivasan, Sharada (15 November 1994). "Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India". Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 5: 49–59. doi:10.5334/pia.60. 
  93. Coghlan, Herbert Henery (1977). Notes on prehistoric and early iron in the Old World (2nd ed.). Pitt Rivers Museum. pp. 99–100. 
  94. Sasisekharan, B. (1999). "Technology of Iron and Steel in Kodumanal". Indian Journal of History of Science 34. 
  95. Wagner (1993), 153, 157–158.
  96. Chamberlin (2007), page 80
  97. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 516.
  98. 98.0 98.1 Pigott, Vincent C. (1999). The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. ISBN 0-924171-34-0, p. 191.
  99. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 319–323.
  100. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "Linguistics"
  101. 101.0 101.1 Wagner (2001), 7, 36–37, 64–68.
  102. Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006), 30.
  103. Gernet (1996), 69.
  104. Wagner (1993), 335.
  105. Pigott (1999), 177.
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  107. Örjan Wikander (2008). "Chapter 6: Sources of Energy and Exploitation of Power". in John Peter Oleson. The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World. Oxford University Press. pp. 141–2. ISBN 978-0-19-518731-1. 
  108. Stavros I. Yannopoulos, Gerasimos Lyberatos, Nicolaos Theodossiou, Wang Li, Mohammad Valipour, Aldo Tamburrino, Andreas N. Angelakis (2015). "Evolution of Water Lifting Devices (Pumps) over the Centuries Worldwide". Water 7 (9): 5031–5060. MDPI. doi:10.3390/w7095031. 
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  110. 110.0 110.1 Adriana de Miranda (2007). Water architecture in the lands of Syria: the water-wheels. L'Erma di Bretschneider. pp. 38–9. ISBN 88-8265-433-8. 
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  112. Srinivasan & Ranganathan
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  116. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/02/06/science/ancient-smelter-used-wind-to-make-high-grade-steel.html John Noble Wilford, "Ancient Smelter Used Wind To Make High-Grade Steel", New York Times, 6 February 1996.
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  118. MSN Encarta (2007), Diamond
  119. 119.0 119.1 Lewis, Michael (2000), "Theoretical Hydraulics, Automata, and Water Clocks", in Wikander, Örjan, Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History, 2, Leiden, pp. 343–369 (356f.), ISBN 90-04-11123-9 
  120. Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "cashmere"
  121. 121.0 121.1 Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), "Pagoda"
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  125. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 263–267.
  126. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 70–71.
  127. Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 3, 649–650.
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  130. Ancient Indian use of Kamal
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  132. John M. Hobson (2004), The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, p. 141, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521547245.
  133. Hoepfner, Wolfram (1970), "Ein Kombinationsschloss aus dem Kerameikos", Archäologischer Anzeiger 85 (2): 210–213 
  134. Paper - one of the most important inventions of the last two millennia
  135. Zaheer Baber (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, p. 57, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199
  136. Livingston, Morna & Beach, Milo (2002), Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India, p. 19, Princeton Architectural Press, ISBN 1568983247
  137. R. Balasubramaniam (2000), On the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar, Corrosion Science 42: 2103-29
  138. Lakwete, Angela (2003). Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801873942. https://books.google.com/books?id=uOMaGVnPfBcC. 
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  172. Sharada Srinivasan; Srinivasa Ranganathan (2004). India's Legendary Wootz Steel: An Advanced Material of the Ancient World. National Institute of Advanced Studies. OCLC 82439861. 
  173. Hill, Donald (2013). A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. Routledge. pp. 163-166. ISBN 9781317761570. https://books.google.com/books?id=oMceAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA163. 
  174. "ʿūd | musical instrument". https://www.britannica.com/art/ud. Retrieved on 6 April 2019. 
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  176. Lucas, Adam (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, Brill Publishers, pp. 65 & 84, ISBN 90-04-14649-0 
  177. Giese-Vögeli, Francine (2007). Das islamische Rippengewölbe : Ursprung, Form, Verbreitung. Berlin: Gebr. Mann. ISBN 978-3-7861-2550-1. 
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  179. Burns, Robert I. (1996), "Paper comes to the West, 800–1400", in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 413–422 (414), ISBN 3-7861-1748-9 
  180. Al-Hassani, Woodcock and Saoud, "1001 Inventions, Muslim heritage in Our World", FSTC Publishing, 2006, reprinted 2007, pp.218–219.
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  263. Schlosser, Stefan (May 2011). "Distillation – from Bronze Age till today". “Al-Razi (865–925) was the preeminent Pharmacist and physician of his time [5]. The discovery of alcohol, first to produce acids such as sulfuric acid, writing up extensive notes on diseases such as smallpox and chickenpox, a pioneer in ophthalmology, author of first book on pediatrics, making leading contributions in inorganic and organic chemistry, also the author of several philosophical works.” 
  264. Dr. Emily Winterburn (National Maritime Museum) (2005). "Using an Astrolabe". Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation. http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=529. Retrieved on 2008-01-22. 
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  279. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr Al-Khujandi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
  280. Ingle, John Ide; Baumgartner, J. Craig (2008). Ingle's Endodontics. PMPH-USA. p. 1281."The individual first credited with the principle of extraction and replantation was an Arabian physician by the name of Abulcasis who practiced in the eleventh century."
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