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The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions.

Note: Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a more practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here.

Paleolithic era[]

See also: Paleolithic

Note: BP means "Before Present".

  • Indeterminate: Music, Language
  • 2.4 Million BP: Struck stone tools in East Africa
  • 2.4 Million BP: Olduwan (struck stone tools) in East Africa
  • 1.8 Million BP: Controlled fire[1] in East Africa
  • 1.8 Million BP: Cooking[2] in East Africa
  • 1.65 Million BP: Acheulean (struck and reworked stone tools) in Kenya
  • 1.4 Million BP: Knife in EthiopiaEast Africa
  • 1 Million BP: Sterilization of food & water in East Africa
  • 500,000 BP: Shelter construction[3]
  • 500,000-100,000 BP: Clothing
  • 400,000 BP: Pigment in Zambia,[4] Southern Africa
  • 160,000-140,000 BP: Burial[5] in Africa
  • 140,000 BP: Bone tools in Blombos Cave, South Africa
  • 140,000 BP: Shellfishing in Blombos CaveSouth Africa
  • 115,000 to 11,000 BP: Calendar by hunter-gatherers during last glacial period[6]
  • 110,000 BP: Beads in Palestine[7]
  • 100,000: Jewellery (bead) in Northern Africa and Middle East[8]
  • 100,000 BP: Lithic blades in Africa and Middle East
  • 77,000 BP: Bedding in South Africa[9]
  • 64,000 BP: Arrowhead in South Africa[10]
  • 61,000 BP: Sewing needle in South Africa[10]
  • 60,000 BP: Boat around Indian Ocean
  • 60,000 BP: Ship in New Guinea, Southeast Asia
  • 60,000 BP: Bow[11]
  • 43,000 BP: Mining in SwazilandSouthern Africa
  • 37,000 BP: Tally stick in Swaziland,[12] Southern Africa
  • 36,000 BP: Cloth woven from flax fiber, in Georgia,[13][14] Western Asia
  • 28,000 BP: Twisted rope[15]
  • 25,000 BP: Atlatl in Northwest Africa [16]
  • 16,000 BP: Pottery in China[17]
  • 15,000 BP: Boomerang in Australia[18]

10th millennium BCE[]

  • c. 10,000 BCE: Basket weaving
  • c. 9500 BCE: Granary in the Jordan Valley
  • Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent, Near East (Neolithic Revolution)
  • Farming in the Fertile CrescentNear East
  • Farm  in the Fertile CrescentNear East
  • Alcoholic beverage in the Fertile CrescentNear East
  • Adobe in the ancient Near East
  • Domestrication in Southwest Asia

9th millennium BCE[]

8th millennium BCE[]

  • Animal husbandry in the ancient Near East

7th millennium BCE[]

  • c. 7000 BCE: Dental drill in Mehrgarh, Pakistan[19]
  • c. 7000 BCE: Drill in MehrgarhPakistan
  • c. 6200 BCE: Map in Çatalhöyük, Asia Minor
  • Cloth woven from flax fiber

6th millennium BCE[]

5th millennium BCE[]

4th millennium BCE[]

3rd millennium BCE[]

  • 2800 BCE: Soap in Mesopotamia
  • 2800 BCE: Button in the Indus Valley Civilization (India/Pakistan)
  • 2800 BCE: Bathroom in the Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2800 BCE: Toilet in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2700 BCE: Plumbing in the Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2700 BCE: Sanitary sewer in the Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2700 BCE: Sewage collection and disposal in the Indus Valley Civilization[40]
  • 2700–2300 BCE: Abacus in Sumer, Mesopotamia[41]
  • 2630-2611 BCE: Step pyramid: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600s BCE: Papyrus: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600s BCE: Suture: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600s BCE: Pharmaceutical cream: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600 BCE: Bangle in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[42]
  • 2600 BCE: Chariot in Mesopotamia
  • 2600 BCE: Urban planning in the Indus Valley Civilization[43][44]
  • 2500s BCE: Flush toilet in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[45]
  • 2500s BCE: Stepwell in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[46]
  • 2500 BCE: Arch in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[47]
  • 2500 BCE: Animal-drawn plough in the Indus Valley Civilization[48]
  • 2500 BCE: Puppet in the Indus Valley Civilization[49]
  • 2500-1900 BCE: Furnace in Balakot, Indus Valley Civilization[50]
  • 2500-900 BCE: Oven in Balakot, Indus Valley Civilization[50]
  • 2400 BCE: Shipyard in Lothal, Indus Valley Civilization
  • 2400 BCE: Dock in Lothal, Indus Valley Civilization[51]
  • 2400 BCE: Ruler in Lothal, Indus Valley Civilization[52]
  • 2332-2283 BCE: GalleyPepi I in Egypt
  • 2000 BCE: Cockfighting in the Indus Valley Civilization[53]
  • 2000 BCE: Currency
  • Dice in the Indus Valley Civilization[54]
  • Dye in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[55]
  • Public bath in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[56]
  • Swimming pool in Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization[57]
  • Aqueduct in ancient Egypt and Indus Valley Civilization
  • Candles in Egypt
  • Dagger in Near East
  • Sickle-sword in Sumer
  • Alphabet in Phoenicia
  • Ink in China
  • Sewage system with flush toilets in the Indus Valley Civilization cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro (modern Pakistan)[58]
  • Sledge in Egypt
  • Ski in Scandinavia[18]

2nd millennium BCE[]

1st millennium BCE[]

8th century BCE[]

7th century BCE[]

6th century BCE[]

5th century BCE[]

  • Crossbow in Ancient China: In Ancient China, the earliest evidence of bronze crossbow bolts dates as early as the mid-5th century BC in Yutaishan, Hubei.[95]
  • 500-100 BCE: Big-toe stirrup in India[96][97]
  • 403-221 BCE: Cupola furnace in China[98]
  • 403-221 BCE: Foundry in China[98]

5th century BCE[]

4th century BCE[]

3rd century BCE[]

2nd century BCE[]

1st century BCE[]

  • 100 BCE: Trip hammer in China
  • 52 BCE: Armillary sphere: Geng Shouchang in China
  • 21 BCE: Collapsable umbrella: Wang Mang[126]

1st millennium CE[]

1st century[]

2nd century[]

  • 105: Paper: Cai Lun in China[134]
  • 132: Rudimentary Seismometer: Zhang Heng in China
  • 180: Rotary fan: Ding Huan in China
  • 180: Winnowing fan: Ding Huan in China
  • Steam power in Egypt
  • Vending machine in Egypt
  • Force pump in Egypt
  • Carding in India[135]


3rd century[]

4th century[]

5th century[]

6th century[]

7th century[]

8th century[]

9th century[]

  • 800-850: Quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorismi)[184]
  • 800-850: Mural instrument: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[184]
  • 800-850: Sine quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[184]
  • 800-850: Horary quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[184]
  • 800-850: Alhidade: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[185]
  • 800-857: Under-arm deodorant: Ziryab[186]
  • 800-857: Beauty parlour: Ziryab[187]
  • 800-857: Bangs: Ziryab[187]
  • 800-857: Chemical depilatory: Ziryab[187]
  • 800-873: Valve: Banū Mūsā in Iraq[188]
  • 800-873: Float valve: Banū Mūsā[188]
  • 800-873: Feedback controller: Banū Mūsā[188]
  • 800-873: Float chamber: Banū Mūsā[189]
  • 800-873: Automatic control: Banū Mūsā[189]
  • 800-873: Automatic flute player: Banū Mūsā[190]
  • 800-873: Programmable machine: Banū Mūsā[190]
  • 800-873: Trick drinking vessels: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Gas mask: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Grab: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Clamshell grab: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Fail-safe system: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Mechanical musical instrument: Banū Mūsā[192]
  • 800-873: Hydropowered organ: Banū Mūsā[192]
  • 800-873: Hurricane lamp: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Self-feeding oil lamp: Banū Mūsā[191]
  • 800-873: Self-trimming oil lamp: Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir[191]
  • 801-873: Pure alcoholAl-Kindi (Alkindus)[193]
  • 810-887: Glass from stonesAbbas Ibn Firnas in al-Andalus[194]
  • 810-887: convex lens
  • 810-887: Clear colourless high-purity glassAbbas Ibn Firnas[194][195]
  • 810-887: MetronomeAbbas Ibn Firnas[196]
  • 810-887: Artificial weather simulationAbbas Ibn Firnas[196]
  • 813-833: Medical schoolAl-Ma'mun[153]
  • 827: Mechanical singing bird automatonAl-Ma'mun[197]
  • 852: ParachuteAbbas Ibn Firnas in al-Andalus[165]
  • 859: UniversityFatima al-Fihri[198][199]
  • 875: Hang gliderAbbas Ibn Firnas[196][200]
  • 875: Artificial wingAbbas Ibn Firnas[196][200]
  • 875: Flight control frameAbbas Ibn Firnas[196][200]
  • c. 865-900: KeroseneMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) in Iraq[152][201]
  • Muslin in DhakaBengal[202][203]
  • Stonepaste ceramics in Iraq[204]
  • Black powder in China
  • Gunpowder in China
  • Water turbine in the Arab Empire[191]
  • Universal sundial in Baghdad[205]
  • Universal horary dial in Baghdad[206][207]
  • Vertical-axle windmill in Afghanistan[208]
  • Naphtha in Azerbaijan[152]
  • Oil well in Azerbaijan[152]
  • CollegeMadrasah in the Muslim world[209]
  • c. 800-1000: SwitchArabic engineers[210]
  • 800-1000: Wind powered gristmills in AfghanistanPakistan and Iran[211]
  • 800-1000: Sugar refinery in AfghanistanPakistan and Iran[211]
  • 800-1000: Metal block printing in Egypt[212]
  • 800-1000: Almucantar quadrantArabic astronomers[213]
  • 800-1000: Navigational astrolabeArabic astronomers[214]
  • 800-1000: Vertical sundialArabic astronomers[215]
  • 800-1000: Polar sundialArabic astronomers[215]
  • 800-1000: CoffeeKhalid in Ethiopia
  • 800-1000: Shaving soapArabic chemists
  • 800-1000: Plumb lineArabic engineers[216]
  • 800-1000: Reed levelArabic engineers[216]
  • 800-1000: TriangulationArabic engineers[216]
  • 800-1000: Geared gristmillArabic engineers[217]
  • 800-1000: Shatranj in Persia
  • 800-1000: Paned window in the Arab Empire[218]
  • 800-1000: Street lamp in the Arab Empire[218]
  • 800-1000: Sherbet in the Arab Empire[219]
  • 800-1000: Soft drink in the Arab Empire[219][220]
  • 800-1000: Syrup in the Arab Empire[219]
  • 800-1000: Mercury escapement mechanism in the Middle East
  • 800-1000: Bridge dam in Iran[221]
  • 800-1000: Milling dam in Iran[221][222]
  • 800-1000: Diversion dam in Iraq[221]
  • 800-1000: Public library in the Arab Empire[223]
  • 800-1000: Lending library in the Arab Empire[223]
  • 800-1000: Library catalog in the Arab Empire[224]
  • 800-1000: Firecracker in China
  • 800-1000: Snakes and ladders in India
  • 801-1000: Municipal solid waste handling: Al-KindiQusta ibn LuqaMuhammad ibn Zakarīya RāziIbn Al-Jazzaral-Masihi[225]
  • 836-1000: Erectile dysfunction treatment: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya RāziThabit bin Qurra (Thebit), Ibn Al-Jazzar[226]
  • 853-929: Observation tubeMuhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius)[227]
  • 865-925: Hard soapMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[228]
  • 865-925: ChemotherapyMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[229]
  • 865-925: AntisepticMuhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[152]
  • 820: Algebra by Al-Khwarizmi[230]
  • 801–873: Alcohol distillation by Al-Kindi[231][232][233]
  • 801–873: Fragrance extraction (rose oil) by Al-Kindi[234]
  • 9th century: Anasthetic compound by Islamic physicians[235]
  • 9th century: Gunpowder in Tang Dynasty China; gunpowder is, according to prevailing academic consensus, discovered in the 9th century by Chinese alchemists searching for an elixir of immortality.[236] Evidence of gunpowder's first use in China comes from the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (618–907).[237] The earliest known recorded recipes for gunpowder are written by Zeng Gongliang, Ding Du, and Yang Weide in the Wujing Zongyao, a military manuscript compiled in 1044 during the Song Dynasty (960–1279).[238][239][240]
  • 9th century: Muslin fabric in Bengal[203]
  • 9th century: Numerical zero in the Indian subcontinent; the concept of zero as a number, and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India.[241] In India, practical calculations are carried out using zero, which is treated like any other number by the 9th century, even in case of division.[241][242]
  • 9th century: Sugar mill in Islamic world[243]
  • 9th century: Syringe by Ammar al-Mawsili[244][245]
  • 9th century: Windpump in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan[246]
  • 850: Conical valve by Banu Musa brothers[247]
  • 850: Gas mask by Banu Musa brothers[248][249]
  • 850: Grab by Banu Musa brothers[250]
  • 850: Automatic flute player, the first music sequencer and the earliest programmable automated music technology, by Banu Musa brothers[251][252]
  • 852: Parachute by Armen Firman[253]
  • 809–887: Glider by Abbas ibn Firnas[254][255][256]
  • 859: University (Al-Karaouine) by Fatima al-Fihri in Morocco[230]
  • 854–925: Antiseptic alcohol by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi[245]
  • 854–925: Bar soap by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi[257]
  • 854–925: Petroleum distillation (kerosene) by Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi[258][259]
  • 854–925: Kerosene lamp (naphtha lamp) by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi[260][261]
  • 854–925: Sulfuric acid by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi[262][263]

10th century[]

  • 903-986: Timekeeping astrolabe: Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi)[264]
  • 904: Fire Arrow in China
  • 919: Double-piston flamethrower in China
  • 984: Pound lock: Qiao Weiyo
  • 953: Fountain pen: Al-Muizz Lideenillah of Egypt[165][265][266]
  • 960-1000: Restaurant in the Arab Empire[267]
  • 994: Astronomical sextant: Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi in Persia[268]
  • 996: Geared mechanical astrolabe: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[269]
  • Banknote in China
  • Fire lance in China
  • Gun in China
  • Milling factory in Baghdad[270]
  • Cartographic grid in Baghdad[271]
  • Graph paper in the Arab Empire[272][273][274]
  • Horizontal-axle windmill in AfghanistanPakistan and Iran[208]
  • 10th century: Arabic numerals (Western Arabic numeral symbols) in Islamic North Africa[275]
  • 10th century: Decimal fractions by Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi[276][277]
  • 931–974: Fountain pen in Fatimid Caliphate during reign of Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah[278]
  • 994: Mural sextant constructed in Ray, Iran, by Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi.[279]
  • 1000: Dental extraction and replantation by Al-Zahrawi[280][281]
  • 1000: Migraine surgery by Al-Zahrawi[282]
  • 1000: Surgical needle by Al-Zahrawi[245]

2nd millennium[]

11th century[]

12th century[]

13th century[]

14th century[]

  • 1304-1375: Astrolabic clock: Ibn al-Shatir[393]
  • 1304-1375: Compendium instrument: Ibn al-Shatir[215]
  • 1304-1375: Compass dial: Ibn al-Shatir[394]
  • 1350: Rope bridge in Peru
  • 1355: Bombard: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Booster: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Matchlock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Multistage rocket: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Naval mine: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Round shot: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Shell: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Wheellock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1371: Polar-axis sundial: Ibn al-Shatir[395]
  • 32-point compass rose in the Arab world[396]
  • Arquebus in China and Middle East
  • Katana in Japan
  • Spherical astrolabe in the Middle East
  • 13th century to 14th century: Cotton gin with worm gear in India's Delhi Sultanate[397]
  • 13th century to 1540: Draw bar in Delhi, India, during the Delhi Sultanate or Mughal Empire[398]
  • 14th century to 16th century: Cotton gin with crank handle in northern India during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire[399]

15th century[]

  • 1400-1429: Plate of conjunctions: Jamshīd al-Kāshī[400][401]
  • 1400-1429: Planetary analog computer: Jamshīd al-Kāshī[401][402][403]
  • 1405-1433: Troopship: Zheng He
  • 1405-1433: Treasure ship: Zheng He
  • 1441: Rain gauge: Jang Yeong-sil
  • 1450s: Alphabetic movable type printing press: Johannes Gutenberg
  • 1451: Concave lens for eyeglasses: Nicholas of Cusa
  • 1490-1492: Terrestrial globe: Martin Behaim
  • 1494: Double-entry bookkeeping system: Luca Pacioli
  • 1498: Bristle toothbrush: Hongzhi Emperor
  • Iron-chain suspension bridge in China
  • Early 15th century: Matchlock arquebus in Ottoman Empire[404]
  • Mid-15th century: Coffee in Sufi monasteries of Yemen, Southern Arabia.[405][406]
  • 1465: Musket in Ottoman Empire[407]

16th century[]

17th century[]

  • 1609: Telescope: Hans Lippershey, Zacharias Janssen, Jacob Metius[437]
  • 1610: Flintlock: Marin le Bourgeoys
  • 1620: Slide rule: William Oughtred
  • 1623: Automatic calculator: Wilhelm Schickard
  • 1631: Vernier scale: Pierre Vernier
  • 1642: Adding machine: Blaise Pascal
  • 1643: Barometer: Evangelista Torricelli
  • 1645: Vacuum pump: Otto von Guericke
  • 1657: Pendulum clock: Christiaan Huygens
  • 1672: Steam car: Ferdinand Verbiest[438][439]
  • 1679: Pressure cooker: Denis Papin
  • 1690: Polhem wheel: Christopher Polhem
  • 1698: Steam engine powered water pump: Thomas Savery
  • 1700: Piano: Bartolomeo Cristofori
  • Palampore in India[440][441]
  • 1621: Rack-and-pinion mechanism in Turkish muskets of the Ottoman Empire[442]
  • 1633: Rocket flight by Lagâri Hasan Çelebi[443][444]
  • 17th century: Banjo in West Africa[445]
  • 17th century: Flush deck in Bengal Subah, Mughal Empire (modern Bangladesh)[446]
  • 17th century: Roller mill in Mughal India[398]

18th century[]

  • 1709: Iron smelting using coke: Abraham Darby I
  • 1712: Steam piston engine: Thomas Newcomen
  • 1714: Mercury thermometer: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
  • 1737: Marine chronometer (H1): John Harrison
  • 1742: Franklin stove: Benjamin Franklin
  • 1750: Flatboat: Jacob Yoder
  • 1752: Lightning rod: Benjamin Franklin
  • 1759: Shampoo: Sake Dean Mahomet of Bengal
  • 1764: Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves/Thomas Highs
  • 1767: Carbonated water: Joseph Priestley
  • 1769: Water frame: Richard Arkwright/Thomas Highs
  • 1775: Submarine Turtle: David Bushnell
  • 1776: Steamboat: Claude de Jouffroy
  • 1776: Watt steam engine: James Watt
  • 1777: Card teeth making machine: Oliver Evans
  • 1777: Circular saw: Samuel Miller
  • 1779: Spinning mule: Samuel Crompton
  • 1780: The Mysorean rockets, the first iron-cased rockets and the first missiles, are deployed by the Mysore Sultanate's Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan against the British at the Battle of Pollilur in South India. They later inspired the Congreve rockets.[447]
  • 1780s: Iron-cased rocket: Tipu Sultan in India[448]
  • 1780s: Metal-cylinder rocket artillery: Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan in India[449]
  • 1780s: Iron rocket artillery: Tipu Sultan of India[448]
  • 1783: Hot air balloon: Montgolfier brothers
  • 1784: Bifocals: Benjamin Franklin
  • 1784: Oil lamp: Aimé Argand[18]
  • 1784: Shrapnel shell: Henry Shrapnel
  • 1785: Power loom: Edmund Cartwright
  • 1785: Automatic flour mill: Oliver Evans
  • 1786: Threshing machine: Andrew Meikle
  • 1791: Artificial teeth: Nicholas Dubois De Chemant
  • 1795: Appertization: Nicolas Appert
  • 1798: Vaccination: Edward Jenner
  • 1798: Lithography: Alois Senefelder
  • Indian clubs in India[450]

19th century[]

1800s[]

  • 1804: Locomotive: Richard Trevithick
  • 1809: Arc lamp: Humphry Davy

1810s[]

  • 1817: Kaleidoscope: David Brewster
  • 1818: Bicycle: Karl Drais[18]

1820s[]

  • 1821: Electric motor: Michael Faraday
  • 1826: Photography: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
  • 1826: Internal combustion engine: Samuel Morey
  • 1827: Friction match: John Walker
  • 1829: Steam locomotive: George Stephenson[18]

1830s[]

  • 1830: Thermostat: Andrew Ure[18]
  • 1831: Electrical generator: Michael Faraday, Ányos Jedlik
  • 1837: Standard diving dress: Augustus Siebe[451]
  • 1838: closed diving suit with a helmet: Augustus Siebe[451]

1840s[]

1850s[]

1860s[]

  • 1860: Light BulbSir Joseph Swan
  • 1862: Mechanical submarine: Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol
  • 1866: Dynamite: Alfred Nobel

1870s[]

  • 1870: Chewing gum: Thomas Adams[18]
  • 1870: Stock ticker: Thomas Alva Edison
  • 1873: Jeans: Levi Strauss[18]
  • 1874: Barbed wire: Joseph Glidden[18]
  • 1874: DDT: Othmar Zeidler[18]
  • 1877: Induction motor: Nikola Tesla
  • 1877: Phonograph: Thomas Alva Edison
  • 1878: Rebreather: Henry Fleuss[457]

1880s[]

  • 1883: Two-phase (alternating current) induction motor: Nikola Tesla
  • 1885: Machine gun: Hiram Stevens Maxim[458]
  • 1888: Polyphase AC Electric power system: Nikola Tesla (30 related patents.)
  • Takadiastase: Jokichi Takamine in Japan

1890s[]

  • 1891: Escalator: Jesse W. Reno[18]
  • 1891: Landing gear: Chūhachi Ninomiya in Japan
  • 1891: Pusher propeller: Chūhachi Ninomiya in Japan
  • 1891: Stabilizer: Chūhachi Ninomiya in Japan
  • 1891: Tesla coil: Nikola Tesla
  • 1893: Biplane: Chūhachi Ninomiya[459] in Japan
  • 1893: Tailless aircraft: Chūhachi Ninomiya[459] in Japan
  • 1893: Tuned wireless communication: Nikola Tesla (The True Wireless)
  • 1893: Radio: Nikola Tesla [460]
  • 1894: Radio transmission: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal[461]
  • 1894: RadiotelegraphJagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
  • 1894: Methamphetamine: Nagayoshi Nagai[462] in Japan
  • 1896: Long-distance wireless transmission: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
  • 1898: Remote control: Nikola Tesla
  • 1898: Ignition coil: Nikola Tesla
  • 1899: Iron-mercury coherer: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal

20th century[]

1900s[]

  • 1900: Epinephrine (adrenaline): Jokichi Takamine & Keizo Uenaka in Japan
  • 1900: Self-heating can
  • 1901: Mercury vapor lamp: Peter C. Hewitt
  • 1902: Air Conditioner: Willis Carrier [18]
  • 1903: Powered, controlled airplane: Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright (Wright brothers)
  • 1907: Monosodium glutamate: Kikunae Ikeda[463] in Japan
  • 1908: Cellophane: Jacques E. Brandenberger
  • 1908: Haber process: Fritz Haber
  • 1908: Umami: Kikunae Ikeda[464] in Japan
  • Microwave optics: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
  • Crescograph: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal[465]

1910s[]

  • 1910: Aberic acid: Umetaro Suzuki in Japan
  • 1910: Thiamine (Vitamin B1): Umetaro Suzuki[466] in Japan
  • 1910: Vitamin (B vitamin): Umetaro Suzuki in Japan
  • 1913: Bra: Mary Phelps Jacob
  • 1914: Tank, military: Sir William Ashbee Tritton and Major Walter Gordon Wilson[467]
  • 1916: Cultured pearl: Mikimoto Kōkichi in Japan
  • 1919: Theremin: Leon Theremin

1920s[]

  • 1920: Saha ionization equation: Meghnad Saha[468] in Bengal
  • 1923: Autogyro: Juan de la Cierva
  • 1924: Automatic power loom: Sakichi Toyoda[469] in Japan
  • 1924: Autonomation: Sakichi Toyoda[469] in Japan
  • 1924: Autonomous automation: Sakichi Toyoda[469] in Japan
  • 1925: Ultra-centrifuge: Theodor Svedberg - used to determine molecular weights
  • 1926: Yagi antenna: Hidetsugu Yagi & Shintaro Uda in Japan
  • 1926: Directional antenna: Hidetsugu Yagi & Shintaro Uda in Japan
  • 1926: High-gain antenna: Hidetsugu Yagi & Shintaro Uda in Japan
  • 1926: Kenjiro Takayanagi invents the first electronic television.[470]
  • 1927: Mechanical cotton picker: John Rust
  • 1928: Sliced bread: Otto Frederick Rohwedder
  • 1928: Antibiotics: Alexander Fleming (Penicillin)
  • 1928: Raman effect: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman[471] in India
  • 1928: Magnetic interference balance: Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar & K. N. Mathur[472] in India
  • 1928: KS steel by Kotaro Honda[473]
  • Phototelegraphic transmission: Yasujiro Niwa in Japan
  • Mechanical television: Yasujiro Niwa in Japan

1930s[]

  • 1931: Magnetic-resistant steel: Kotaro Honda in Japan
  • 1931: Magnetic steel: Kotaro Honda in Japan
  • 1931: Alnico: Tokuhichi Mishima in Japan
  • 1931: MKM steel: Tokuhichi Mishima in Japan[474][475]
  • 1934: Switching circuit theory is introduced by Akira Nakashima,[476][477][478][479] laying the foundations for digital circuit design, in digital computers and other areas of modern technology.[479]
  • 1937: Nylon: Wallace H. Carothers[18]
  • 1937: Portable electrocardiograph: Taro Takemi in Japan
  • 1938: Ballpoint pen: Laszlo Biro
  • 1939: Helicopter: Igor Sikorsky
  • 1939: Automated teller machine (ATM): Luther George Simjian
  • 1939: Vectorcardiography: Taro Takemi in Japan
  • Nuclear medicineTaro TakemiIrene Joliot-CurieFrederic Joliot-Curie

1940s[]

  • 1941: Velcro: George de Mestral
  • 1942: The earliest electroacoustic tape music recording by Halim El-Dabh in Cairo, Egypt.[480]
  • 1942: Nuclear reactor: Enrico Fermi[18] and Robert Oppenheimer
  • 1942: Undersea oil pipeline: Hartley, Anglo-Iranian, Siemens in Operation Pluto
  • 1944: Fire balloon in Japan
  • 1945: Nuclear weaponManhattan Project
  • 1946: Bikini: Louis Réard[18]
  • 1947: Transistor: William Shockley, Walter Brattain, John Bardeen
  • 1947: Polaroid camera: Edwin Land
  • 1948: Long Playing Record: Peter Carl Goldmark
  • 1948: Holography: Dennis Gabor[18]
  • 1949: Atomic clocks
  • 1949: Kei car in Japan
  • Electric rice cooker: Mitsubishi Electric in Japan

1950s[]

  • 1950: Steadicam tracking shot: Akira Kurosawa in Japan
  • 1950: The PIN photodiode is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa.[481]
  • 1950: The static induction transistor, a type of JFET, is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa and Y. Watanabe.[482]
  • 1951: Combined oral contraceptive pill: Djerassi, Miramontes and Rosenkranz [483] in United States
  • 1951: Liquid Paper: Bette Nesmith Graham in United States
  • 1952: Floppy disk: Yoshiro Nakamatsu[484] in Japan
  • 1952: Optical fiber: Narinder Singh Kapany[485][486] in India and United Kingdom
  • 1952: The avalanche photodiode is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa.[487]
  • 1952: Fusion bomb: Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam in United States
  • 1953: Medical ultrasonography
  • 1953: The optical fiber is invented by Narinder Singh Kapany and Harold Hopkins.[488][489][490]
  • 1955: Video phone: Gregorio Y. Zara in the Philippines
  • 1955: Bounce lighting: Subrata Mitra[491][492] in Bengal
  • 1956: Digital clock
  • 1957: Electric compact calculator: Casio in Japan
  • 1957: Satellite: Kerim Kerimov (Sputnik 1) in Turkestan
  • 1957: The first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, is built and launched by the Soviet Union. Its lead architects were Sergei Korolev and Kerim Kerimov.[493][494]
  • 1957: The semiconductor laser is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa.[487][495]
  • 1958: Implantable pacemaker: Rune Elmqvist in Sweden
  • Dedicated high-speed rail lines in Japan
  • High-speed narrow gauge railway: Shinkansen in Japan
  • 1959: Bullet train: Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Japan
  • 1959: The gas laser is invented by Ali Javan.[496]

1960s[]

  • 1960: Laser: Theodore Harold Maiman in North America
  • 1960: Solid-state electronic calculator: Sony in Japan
  • 1961: Human spaceflight: Yuri Gagarin, Sergey Korolyov and Kerim Kerimov[493] in Turkestan
  • 1961: The first human spaceflight, Yuri Gagarin's 108-minute trip around the globe aboard the Vostok 1, is conducted by the Soviet Union's Sergei Korolev and Kerim Kerimov.[493][494]
  • 1963: Tube structure: Fazlur Rahman Khan in United States
  • 1963: Frame tube structure: Fazlur Rahman Khan in United States
  • 1963: The tube structural system is invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan.[497]
  • 1963: Fiber-optic communication is invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa.[498]
  • 1965: Trussed tube structure: Fazlur Rahman Khan in United States
  • 1965: Tactile paving invented by Seiichi Miyake.[499]
  • 1966: The first automated teller machine (ATM), the Computer Loan Machine developed in Japan, is released.[500][501]
  • Late 1960s: The first digital fax machine, the Dacom Rapidfax, is released.[502][503]
  • 1967: The first fully automated space docking, of Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188, is conducted by the Soviet Union and led by Kerim Kerimov.[493][494]
  • 1967: The first PCM (pulse-code modulation) digital audio recorder is developed by NHK's research facilities.[504]
  • 1967: Space dock: Kerim Kerimov[493][494] in Turkestan
  • 1967: Automatic Teller Machine: John Shepherd-Barron in United Kingdom
  • 1967: Bullet Time: Tatsunoko Production in Japan
  • 1967: Hypertext: Project Xanadu in United States
  • 1967: Quartz wristwatch: Seiko[505] in Japan
  • 1968: The first phaser effects pedal, the Uni-Vibe, is invented by Fumio Mieda of Shin-ei.[506]
  • 1968: The aperture grille CRT display techology is introduced by Sony with their Trinitron television.[507]
  • 1968: The first text-to-speech synthesis system is developed by Noriko Umeda's team at the Electrotechnical Laboratory.[508]
  • Aperture grille: Sony in Japan
  • Packet switching: Paul Baran in United States
  • Shearing interferometer: M. V. R. K. Murty in India[509]
  • 1969: Video cassette: Sony in Japan
  • 1969: Direct-drive turntable (Technics SP-10) invented by Shuichi Obata of Matsushita.[510] based in Osaka.[511][512]

1970s[]

1980s[]

  • 1980: Compact Disc: Sony[18] in Japan
  • 1980: Flash memory: Fujio Masuoka[527][528] in Japan
  • 1980: The Roland TR-808, the first fully programmable drum machine, is introduced by Roland Corporation.[529]
  • 1980: The first laptop is invented by Suwa Seikosha employee Yukio Yokozawa in 1980,[530] and is released by Seiko as the HC-20 in 1981.[531]
  • 1980-1982: The first LCD televisions were developed by Hattori Seiko's R&D group from 1980.[532] In 1982, Seiko Epson released the first LCD television, the Epson TV Watch.[533][534]
  • 1980-1985: The lithium-iron battery was developed from the research of Rachid Yazami and John B. Goodenough in 1980, and further developed by Tokio Yamabe and Shizukuni Yata in 1981,[535] and found that it was very effective for the anode in the conventional liquid electrolyte.[536] [537] which led to Akira Yoshino of Asahi Chemical building the first lithium-ion battery in 1985.[538]
  • 1981: 3D printing is invented by Hideo Kodama of Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute.[539][540]
  • 1981: Handheld electronic camera: Sony in Japan
  • 1981: Video Floppy: Sony in Japan
  • 1982: Compact Disc player: Sony[541] in Japan
  • 1982: CD-ROM: An acronym of "Compact Disc Read-only memory", it is a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback. The 1985 Yellow Book standard developed by Sony adapted the format to hold any form of binary data.[542]
  • 1982: Camcorder: Sony in Japan
  • 1982: D-pad: Gunpei Yokoi in Japan
  • 1982: Pocket television: Sony in Japan
  • 1982: Flat panel display: Sony in Japan
  • 1982: Parallax scrolling: Irem[543] in Japan
  • 1982: The first CD player (Sony CDP-101) is released by Sony.[544]
  • 1982: The neodymium magnet is invented independently by [General Motors]] (GM) and Sumitomo Special Metals.[545]
  • 1982: A CD-ROM contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback. It is first demonstrated by Denon in 1982.[546] The Yellow Book standard is later developed by Sony and Philips in 1985.[542]
  • 1983: Personal digital assistant: Casio in Japan
  • 1983: Internet and TCP/IP network: Robert E. Kahn in United States
  • 1984: Digital synthesizer: Yamaha in Japan
  • 1984: Portable CD player: Sony in Japan
  • 1984: Phase distortion synthesis: Casio in Japan
  • 1984: Thin-film transistor (TFT): Shunpei Yamazaki in Japan
  • 1985: Graphing calculator: Casio in Japan
  • 1985: Lithium-ion battery invented by Akira Yoshino.[547]
  • 1986: The first digital single-lens reflex camera, the Nikon SVC, revealed by Nikon.[548]
  • 1986: The first PC virus (Brain) is created by Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farooq Alvi.[549]
  • 1986: Digital single-lens reflex camera: Nikon in Japan
  • 1986: PC virusBrain boot sector virus by Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farooq Alvi in Pakistan
  • 1987: Electronically-controlled continuously variable transmission: Subaru in Japan
  • 1988: Digital camera: Fuji in Japan
  • 1988: Liquid crystal display television: Sharp Corporation in Japan
  • Digital Audio Tape: Sony in Japan
  • PCM adaptor: Sony in Japan
  • Vowel-Consonant synthesis: Casio in Japan
  • 1989: Continuously variable transmission car: Subaru in Japan
  • 1989: Blue laser: Isamu Akasaki in Japan
  • 1989: Gallium nitride: Isamu Akasaki[550] in Japan
  • 1989: p–n junction: Isamu Akasaki[550] in Japan
  • 1989: Digital waveguide synthesis: Yamaha in Japan
  • 1989: The first color LCD video projector, Epson's VPJ-700, based on their 3LCD technology, is released.[534]
  • 1989: The first color plasma display, produced by Fujitsu, is released.[551]

1990s[]

  • 1990: Handheld colour television: Sony in Japan
  • 1990: Handheld liquid crystal display television: Sony in Japan
  • 1990: World Wide Web: Tim Berners-Lee[18][552] in United Kingdom
  • 1991: Lithium battery: Sony in Japan
  • 1991: Memory card: Japan Electronic Industries Development Association
  • 1992: Plasma colour display: Fujitsu in Japan
  • 1992: Blue laser by Shuji Nakamura[553]
  • 1993: Mosaic, the first popular web browser is introduced
  • 1993: Mosaic, the first popular web browser is introduced
  • 1993: Global Positioning System (GPS): United States Department of Defense
  • 1993: Blue LED: Shuji Nakamura in Japan
  • 1994: Physical modelling synthesis: Yamaha in Japan
  • 1994: Wiki: Ward Cunningham[554] in United States
  • 1994: QR code by Denso Wave[555]
  • 1994: Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994.[556]
  • 1994: Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994.[557]
  • 1995: DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Panasonic, Philips, Sony and Toshiba in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions.
  • 1995: DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions.
  • 1995: The first web-based commercial online auction (eBay) is founded by Pierre Omidyar.[558]
  • 1995: DVD: An optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Japanese companies Sony, Toshiba and Panasonic in 1995. DVD's offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions.
  • 1995: Web-based online auctionPierre Omidyar (eBay) in United States
  • 1995: Web browser based webmail: Hotmail (Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith) in United States
  • 1996: Analog stick: Nintendo in Japan
  • 1996: Force feedback: Nintendo in Japan
  • 1997: Non-mechanical digital audio player: SaeHan Information Systems[559] in South Korea
  • 1997: Plasma television: Pioneer Corporation in Japan
  • 1998: Arcade-quality GPU: VideoLogic (Hossein Yassaie) and NEC
  • 1998: Hidden surface removalVideoLogic (Hossein Yassaie) and NEC
  • Analog modeling synthesizer: Korg in Japan
  • Indium gallium nitride: Shuji Nakamura in Japan
  • 1999: Camera phone (VP-210) by Kyocera[560]

3rd millennium[]

21st century[]

2000s[]

2010s[]

Notes[]

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  2. Harvard Gazette, Invention of cooking drove evolution of the human species
  3. Hadfield, Peter, Gimme Shelter
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  9. Wadley L, Sievers C, Bamford M, Goldberg P, Berna F, Miller C. (2011). Middle Stone Age Bedding Construction and Settlement Patterns at Sibudu, South Africa. Science 9 December 2011: Vol. 334 no. 6061 pp. 1388-1391
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  14. "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers" (2009). Science 325 (5946). doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. 
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