Aelia Sophia (born in the 6th century and died c. 601.) was the Empress consort of Justin II of the Byzantine Empire from 565 to 578. She was specifically interested in economic matters and was involved in financial matters during Justin's reign. During his bouts of insanity, she acted as regent.
According to the Ecclesiastic History of John of Ephesus, Sophia was a niece of Theodora, the Empress consort of Justinian I. John of Ephesus did not specify the identities of her parents. According to the Secret History of Procopius, Theodora had only two siblings: her older sister Comito and younger sister Anastasia; either one could be the mother of Sophia. Procopius identifies Comito as a leading hetaera of her age. John Malalas records that Comito (b. ca 500) married general Sittas in 528. Sittas may thus be the father of Sophia. Whether Anastasia ever married is unknown.
During the reign of Justinian I (527–565), Theodora arranged for Sophia to marry his nephew Justin. According to the Chronicon of Victor of Tunnuna, Justin was a son of Dulcidius and Vigilantia. Her father-in-law is also known as Dulcissimus in genealogical resources. Vigilantia and her brother, Justinian I, were children of Petrus Sabbatius and a senior Vigilantia, who was a sister of Justin I.