Slovakia is an Eastern European country bordered by the Czech Republic, Poland, the Ukraine, Hungary, and Austria.

Ancient SlovakiaEdit

The Celts were the first population in the territory of present-day Slovakia who can be identified on the basis of written sources.[1][2] The first Celtic groups came from the West around 400 BCE.[2]

Roman SlovakiaEdit

The Romans and the Germanic tribes launched their first invasions against the territories along the Middle Danube in the last decade of the 1st century BCE.[3] Roman legions crossed the Danube near Bratislava under the command of Tiberius to fight against the Germanic Quadi in Template:Nobr, but the local tribes' rebellion in Pannonia forced the Romans to return.[4][5] Taking advantage of internal strifes, the Romans settled a group of Quadi in the lowlands along the Danube between the rivers Morava and Váh in 21, making Vannius their king.[5] The Germans lived in rectangular houses, rather than square ones.[6]

In the 4th century, the Roman Empire could no longer resist the attacks by the neighboring peoples.[7] The empire's frontier started to collapse along the Danube in the 370s.[7] The development of the Hunnic Empire in the Eurasian Steppes forced large groups of Germanic peoples, including the Quadi and the Vandals, to leave their homelands by the Middle Danube and along the upper course of the river Tisza in the early Template:Nobr.[8] Their lands were occupied by the Heruli, Scirii, Rugii and other Germanic peoples.[9][10] However, the Carpathian Basin was dominated by the nomadic Huns from the early Template:Nobr and the Germanic peoples became subjects to Attila the Hun.[9][10]

Medieval SlovakiaEdit

In the 8th century, the Slavs increased their agricultural productivity (usage of iron plow) along with further development of crafts. Higher productivity initiated changes in the Slavic society, released a part of human resources previously required for farming and allowed to form groups of professional warriors. The Slavs began to build heavily fortified settlements (hradisko - large grad) protected by strong walls (8–10 m) and trenches (width 4–7 m, depth 2-3.5 m).[11] Among the oldest belong Pobedim, Nitra-Martinský Vrch, Majcichov, Spišské Tomášovce and Divinka.[11] The neighborhood with Avars raised unification process and probably also formation of local military alliances.[11] The archaeological findings from this period (such as an exquisite noble tomb in Blatnica) support the formation of a Slavic upper class on the territory that later became the nucleus of Great Moravia.[12]

A series of Frankish-Avar wars (788-803) led to the political fall of the khaganate.[13] In 805, the Slavs attacked again.[14] Their offensive aimed mainly on the centers of Avar power - Devín and Komárno. The Avars were not able to resist attack and they were expelled to the right bank of Danube.[14] The Slavs from Slovakia probably participated also in further conflicts between small Slavic dukes and remaining Avar tarkhans.[14]

Great Moravia arose around 830 when Mojmír I unified the Slavic tribes settled north of the Danube and extended the Moravian supremacy over them.[15] When Mojmír I endeavoured to secede from the supremacy of the king of East Francia in 846, King Louis the German deposed him and assisted Mojmír's nephew, Rastislav (846–870) in acquiring the throne.[16]

The territory of the present-day Slovakia became progressively integrated into the developing state (the future Kingdom of Hungary) in the early 10th century. The Gesta Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Hungarians") mentions that Huba, head of one of the seven Hungarian tribes, received possessions around Nitra and the Žitava River; while according to the Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Huns and Hungarians") another tribal leader, Lél, settled down around Hlohovec (Template:Lang-hu) and following the Hungarian victory over the Moravians, he usually stayed around Nitra.[17] Modern authors also claim that the north-western parts of the Pannonian Basin were occupied by one of the Hungarian tribes.[18][page needed]

Colonial SlovakiaEdit

The Ottoman Empire conquered the central part of the Kingdom of Hungary, and set up several Ottoman provinces there (see Budin Eyalet, Eğri Eyalet, Uyvar Eyalet). Transylvania became an Ottoman protectorate vassal and a base which gave birth to all the anti-Habsburg revolts led by the nobility of the Kingdom of Hungary during the period 1604 to 1711. The remaining part of the former Kingdom of Hungary, which included much of present-day territory of Slovakia.

After the ousting of the Ottomans from Budin (which later became Budapest) in 1686, it became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. Despite living under Hungarian, Habsburg and Ottoman administration for several centuries, the Slovak people succeeded in keeping their language and their culture.

During the 18th century the Slovak National Movement emerged, partially inspired by the broader Pan-Slavic movement with the aim of fostering a sense of national identity among the Slovak people.[19][20][21] Advanced mainly by Slovak religious leaders, the movement grew during the 19th century. At the same time, the movement was divided along the confessional lines and various groups had different views on everything from quotidian strategy to linguistics. Moreover, the Hungarian control remained strict after 1867 and the movement was constrained by the official policy of magyarization.

In the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Slovak nationalist leaders took the side of the Austrians in order to promote their separation from the Kingdom of Hungary within the Austrian monarchy. The Slovak National Council even took part in the Austrian military campaign by setting up auxiliary troops against the rebel government of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.


  1. Spiesz, Caplovic & Bolchazy 2006, pp. 10-11.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Bartl et al. 2002, p. 13.
  3. Bartl et al. 2002, p. 14.
  4. Spiesz, Caplovic & Bolchazy 2006, p. 14.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Kirschbaum 1996, p. 16.
  6. Spiesz, Caplovic & Bolchazy 2006, p. 15.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Barford 2001, p. 25.
  8. Heather 2006, pp. 195,202-203.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Bartl et al. 2002, p. 17.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Heather 2006, p. 331.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Klein, Ruttkay & Marsina 1994, p. 66.
  12. Štefanovičová, Tatiana (1989). Osudy starých Slovanov. Bratislava: Osveta. 
  13. Kirschbaum, Stanislav J. (March 1995). A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; St. Martin's Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-312-10403-0. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Steinhübel 2004, p. 57.
  15. Angi, János; Bárány, Attila; Orosz, István; Papp, Imre; Pósán, László (1997). Európa a korai középkorban (3-11. század) (Europe in the Early Middle Ages - 3–11th centuries)'. Debrecen: dup, Multiplex Media - Debrecen U. P.. p. 360. ISBN 963-04-9196-6. 
  16. Kristó 1994, p. 467.
  17. Kristó 1994, p. 448.
  18. Kristó 1994.
  19. "Archived copy". Retrieved on 2007-03-18.  Sándor Kostya: Pan-Slavism
  20. "Slovakia National Revival - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System". 
  21. Jelena Milojkovic-Djuric: Panslavism and National Identity in the Balkans, 1830–1880 ISBN 0-88033-291-3
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