Rupert I the Red (German: Rupert I. der Rote) (9 June 1309 - 16 February 1390) was the Elector Palatine from 1353 until 1390.


Rupert was born in Wolfratshausen in 1309 as the youngest son of the Elector Palatine Rudolph I. After the death of his brother Rudolph II, Rupert succeeded him as the sole Elector Palatine. In 1356 the Golden Bull confirmed the right of the Electors Palatine to participate in the Imperial Elections. He founded the University of Heidelberg in 1386 (the fourth in Germany) and named it after himself. Rupert died in Neustadt in 1390 and was succeeded by his nephew Rupert II.


Rupert married twice, with both marriages being childless. His first was to Elizabeth of Flanders (1340 - 1382). His second was to Beatrix of Berg (1360 - 1392).

Preceded by:

Rupert I

Succeeded by:

Rudolph II Elector Palatine
1338 - 1390
with... Rudolph II
1338 - 1353
Rupert II
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