The Ottoman conquest of Egypt began with the Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517. It was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire. The results of the conflict led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire. The war transformed the Ottoman Empire from a realm at the margins of the Islamic world, mainly located in Anatolia and the Balkans, to a huge empire encompassing the much of the traditional lands of Islam, including the cities of Mecca, Cairo, Damascus and Aleppo. It continued to be ruled however from Constantinople.