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Medjay were an ethnic group that was located in modern day southern Egypt and northern Sudan. In the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, the Medjay were a powerful priesthood which administrated the lands and properties of the pharaoh, and their subsequent benefits. The term originally referred to an ancient nomadic tribe of Nubians who were employed by the Egyptians as mercenaries, forming a complex public administration very similar to a national police force, and were used as an elite paramilitary police force in roles of desert scouts and protectors of areas of Pharaonic interest; gradually, the term came to describe their force itself.

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