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These are lists of regions and countries sorted by their estimated real gross domestic product (GDP) in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a country/region in a given year. 1990 GDP dollar (international dollar) estimates here are derived from PPP estimates.

In some of these lists, the term country corresponds to the geographical region of the country being referred to, not the country itself. Most of the information below is based on estimates by economic historian Angus Maddison, former professor at University of Groningen and assistant director of the economics development division for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, in his work The World Economy: Historical Statistics. Estimates are for the periods from the 1st century to 1998, with figures in millions of 1990 international dollars, and shares of world GDP are also given.

Economist and Journalist Evan Davis has praised Maddison's research by citing it as a "fantastic publication" and that it was "based on the detailed scholarship of the world expert on historical economic data Angus Maddison." He also added that "One shouldn't read the book in the belief the statistics are accurate to 12 decimal places."[1]

1st centuryEdit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 102 536 100
India 33 750 [2] 32.9
Han China 26 820 26.2
Roman Empire 22 000 [3] 21.5
Western Europe 11 115 10.8
West Asia 10 120 [4] 9.9
Africa 8 030 [4] 7.8
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 6 970 6.8
Latin America 2 240 2.2
Eastern Europe (excluding Russia) 1 900 1.9
Russia and Central Asia 1 560 [5] 1.5
Japan 1 200 1.2
North America and Australia 468 0.5

1000Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 116 790 100
Islamic Caliphate 35 280 [6] 30.3
India 33 750 [2] 28.9
Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad 26 955 [7][8][9] 23.1
Song China 26 550 22.7
Africa 13 723 11.8
West Asia 12 415 10.6
Western Europe 10 165 8.7
Byzantine Empire 8 150 [10][11] 7.0
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 6 215 6.8
Fatimid Caliphate of Cairo 5 410 [12] 4.7
Latin America 4 560 3.9
Japan 3 188 2.7
Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba 2 915 [13] 2.5
Russia and Central Asia 2 840 [5] 2.4
Poland 2 600 2.2
North America and Australia 784 0.7

1500Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 247 116 100
Ming China 61 800 25.0
India 60 500 [2] 24.5
Islamic Caliphate 31 299 [14] 12.7
Ottoman Caliphate 25 414 [15][8][16][9] 10.3
Russia and Central Asia 8 475 [5] 3.4
Germany 8 112 3.3
Japan 7 700 3.1
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 6 237 2.5
Mamluk Caliphate of Cairo 5 885 [17] 2.4
Spain 4 744 1.9
South America and Central America 4 100 1.7
Mexico 3 188 1.3
British Isles 2 815 1.1
Austria 1 414 0.6
Belgium 1 225 0.5
United States 800 [18] 0.3
Netherlands 716 0.3
Portugal 632 0.3
Switzerland 482 0.2
Denmark 443 0.2
Sweden 382 0.2
Canada and Australia 320 0.1
Norway 192 0.1
Finland 136 0.1

1600Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 329 417 100
Ming China 96 000 29.2
Mughal India 74 250 22.6
Ottoman Caliphate 66 011 [19][8][16][9] 20.1
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 24 088 7.3
Africa 22 000 6.7
Spanish Empire 20 789 [20] 6.3
France 15 559 4.7
Italian States 14 410 4.4
Germany 12 432 3.8
Russia and Central Asia 11 447 [5] 3.5
Japan 9 620 2.9
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 8 743 2.7
Spain 7 416 2.1
British Isles 6 007 1.8
South America and Central America 2 623 0.8
Austria 2 093 0.6
Netherlands 2 052 0.6
Belgium 1 561 0.5
Mexico 1 134 0.3
Switzerland 880 0.3
Portugal 850 0.3
Sweden 626 0.2
United States 600 [18] 0.2
Denmark 569 0.2
Canada and Australia 320 0.1
Norway 304 0.1
Finland 215 0.1

1700Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 371 369 100
Mughal India 90 750 24.4
Qing China 82 800 22.3
Western Europe 82 072 22.1
Ottoman Caliphate 61 614 [21][8][22][16][9] 16.6
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 28 276 7.6
Africa 24 400 6.6
Spanish Empire 23 867 [23] 6.5
France 21 180 5.7
Russia and Central Asia 16 222 [5] 4.4
Japan 15 390 4.1
Italy 14 630 3.9
Germany 13 410 3.6
West Asia 12 291 3.3
British Isles 10 709 2.9
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 10 647 2.9
Spain 7 893 2.2
Netherlands 4 009 1.1
South America and Central America 3 813 1.0
Mexico 2 558 0.7
Austria 2 483 0.7
Belgium 2 288 0.6
Portugal 1 708 0.5
Switzerland 1 253 0.3
Sweden 1 231 0.3
Denmark 727 0.2
United States 527 [18] 0.1
Norway 450 0.1
Canada and Australia 300 0.1
Finland 255 0.1

1820Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 694 442 100
Qing China 228 600 32.9
India 111 417 [2] 16.0
Ottoman Caliphate 42 482 [24] 6.2
British Empire 38 666 [25] 5.6
Russian Empire 37 710 5.4
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 36 592 5.3
United Kingdom 36 232 5.2
France 35 468 [26] 5.1
Africa 31 010 4.5
Germany 26 349 3.8
Eastern Europe (excluding Russian Empire) 23 149 3.3
Italy 22 535 3.2
Japan 20 739 3.0
West Asia 18 549 2.7
Spain 12 975 1.9
United States 12 548 1.8
South America and Central America 9 120 1.3
Netherlands 4 288 0.6
Mexico 5 000 0.7
Belgium 4 529 0.7
Austria 4 104 0.6
Portugal 3 175 0.5
Sweden 3 098 0.4
Switzerland 2 342 0.3
Denmark 1 471 0.2
Norway 1 071 0.2
Canada and Australia 941 0.1
Finland 913 0.1

1870Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 1 101 369 100
British Empire 265 000 [27] 24.1
Qing China 189 740 17.2
British India 134 882 12.2
United Kingdom 100 179 9.1
United States 98 374 8.9
Russian Empire 83 646 7.6
Ottoman Caliphate 76 724 [28] 7.0
France 72 100 6.5
Germany 71 429 6.5
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 55 391 5.0
Eastern Europe (excluding Russian Empire) 45 448 4.1
Italy 41 814 3.8
Africa 40 172 3.6
Japan 25 393 2.3
South America and Central America 21 683 2.0
West Asia 22 405 2.0
Spain 22 295 2.0
Canada and Australia 13 781 1.3
Belgium 13 746 1.2
Netherlands 9 952 0.9
Austria 8 419 0.8
Sweden 6 927 0.6
Mexico 6 214 0.6
Switzerland 5 867 0.5
Portugal 4 338 0.4
Denmark 3 782 0.3
Norway 2 485 0.2
Finland 1 999 0.2
Brazil Empire 1 920 0.2

1913Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 2 704 782 100
British Empire 570 406 [29] 21.1
United States 517 383 19.1
German Empire 288 000 [30] 10.6
Russian Empire 265 100 [30] 9.8
Republic of China 241,431 8.9
Germany 237 332 8.8
United Kingdom 224 618 8.3
British India 204 242 7.6
French Empire 159 000 [30] 5.9
France 129 000 [30] 4.8
Austro-Hungarian Empire 122 000 [30] 4.5
Eastern Europe (excluding Russian Empire) 121 559 4.5
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 120 462 4.5
Italian Empire 97 000 [30] 3.6
South America and Central America 95 760 3.5
Italy 95 487 3.5
Africa 72 948 2.7
Japan 71 653 2.6
Canada and Australia 68 249 2.5
Dutch Empire 62 000 [30] 2.3
Spanish Empire 42 000 [30] 1.6
Spain 41 600 [30] 1.5
Belgian Empire 39 000 [30] 1.4
West Asia 35 428 1.3
Belgium 32 347 1.2
Ottoman Caliphate 30 322 [31] 1.2
Mexico 25 921 1.0
Austria 23 451 0.9
Netherlands 22 000 [30] 0.8
Ottoman Turkey 18 300 [30] 0.7
Sweden 17 403 0.6
Switzerland 16 483 0.6
Denmark 11 670 0.4
Portuguese Empire 11 000 [30] 0.4
Portugal 7 467 0.3
Finland 6 389 0.2
Norway 6 119 0.2
Brazil 3 119 0.2

1950Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 5 336 101 100
United States 1 455 916 27.3
Soviet Union 510 243 9.6
South America and Central America 356 188 6.7
United Kingdom 347 850 6.5
Germany 265 354 5.0
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 252 166 4.7
People's Republic of China 239 903 4.5
Republic of India 222 222 4.2
France 220 492 4.1
Africa 194 569 3.6
Eastern Europe (excluding Soviet Union) 185 023 3.5
Canada and Australia 179 574 3.4
Italy 164 957 3.1
Japan 160 966 3.0
West Asia 110 412 2.1
Spain 66 792 1.3
Mexico 67 368 1.3
Netherlands 60 642 1.1
Sweden 47 269 0.9
Belgium 47 190 0.9
Switzerland 42 545 0.8
Denmark 29 654 0.6
Austria 25 702 0.5
Brazil 18 126 0.4
Norway 17 838 0.3
Portugal 17 615 0.3
Finland 17 051 0.3

1973Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 16 059 180 100
United States 3 536 622 22.0
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 2 166 225 13.5
Soviet Union 1 513 070 9.4
Japan 1 242 932 7.7
South America and Central America 1 118 398 7.0
Germany 944 755 5.9
West Asia 932 968 5.1
People's Republic of China 740 048 4.6
France 683 965 4.3
United Kingdom 675 941 4.2
Italy 582 713 3.6
Eastern Europe (excluding Soviet Union) 550 757 3.4
Africa 529 185 3.3
Canada and Australia 521 667 3.2
Republic of India 494 832 3.1
Spain 304 220 1.9
Mexico 279 302 1.7
Brazil 239 178 1.5
Netherlands 175 791 1.1
Belgium 118 516 0.7
Switzerland 117 251 0.7
Sweden 109 794 0.7
Austria 85 227 0.5
Denmark 70 032 0.4
Portugal 63 397 0.4
Finland 51 724 0.3
Norway 44 544 0.3

1998Edit

Region / Country GDP (PPP)
mill. of International dollars
GDP Share
percentage (%)
World 33 725 635 100
United States 7 394 598 21.9
People's Republic of China 3 873 352 11.5
Far East (excluding China, India, Japan, Russia) 3 140 603 9.3
Japan 2 581 576 7.7
South America and Central America (excluding Brazil) 2 085 700 6.8
Republic of India 1 702 712 5.0
Africa 1 239 408 3.1
Italy 1 122 776 3.0
Brazil 973 178 2.2
Eastern Europe (excluding Russia) 660 861 2.0
Mexico 655 910 1.9
Spain 560 138 1.7
Netherlands 317 517 0.9
Belgium 198 249 0.6
Sweden 165 385 0.5
Austria 152 712 0.5
Switzerland 152 345 0.5
Portugal 128 877 0.4
Denmark 117 319 0.3
Norway 104 860 0.3
Iran 102 182 0.3
Finland 94 421 0.3

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4337203.stm.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 These estimates refer to the combined economy of the various states located in the regions now corresponding to the Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  3. Goldsmith (p. 263, 267).
  4. 4.0 4.1 Maddison (2003)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 These estimates refer to the combined economy of the various states located in the region corresponding to the former Russian Empire.
  6. The combined GDP of the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad, the Fatimid Caliphate of Cairo, and the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba.
  7. Abbasid Caliphate:
    • Tax revenue: 14 million dinars [1]
    • Tax ranges from 2.5% to 10%, therefore economy at least 140 million dinars
    • 140 million dinars = 175 million ducats [2]
    • 175 million ducats = $2041.17 million value in 1913 dollars
    • $2041.17 million 1913 dollars = $26,955 million 1990 dollars
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 A. Lybyer, The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent, 180
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "CPI Inflation Calculator". Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/data/inflation_calculator.htm. Retrieved on 2012-02-22. 
  10. Milanovic 2006, p. 468
  11. Milanovic 2006, p. 461
  12. The combined GDP of the Abbasid Caliphate, Fatimid Caliphate, Algeria, Tunisia, and Italy, according to Maddison (2003).
  13. The combined GDP of Morocco, Spain, and Portugual, according to Maddison (2003).
  14. The combined GDP of the Ottoman Caliphate and the Mamluk Caliphate of Cairo.
  15. Ottoman Empire:
    • 3.3 million ducats tax revenue, at 2% tax rate, [3] gives economy of 165 million ducats
    • 165 million ducats = $1925 million in 1913 value
    • $1925 million 1913 dollars = $25,414 million 1990 dollars
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Webster , Noah (1913). Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. G. & C. Merriam Co. http://dictionary.x10host.com/?w=ducat. 
  17. The combined GDP of West Asia (excluding Iraq, Iran, and Turkey), Egypt, and Libya, according to Maddison (2010) [4]
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 These estimates refer to the combined economy of the various states located in the region now corresponding to the United States.
  19. Ottoman Empire:
    • $200 million tax revenue, at 4% tax rate, [5] gives economy of $5,000 million 1913 dollars
    • $5,000 million 1913 dollars = $66,011 million 1990 dollars
  20. The combined GDP of Spain, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia (estimated as 50% of Italy), South America, Central America, Belgium, Mexico, and Portugal (part of the Spanish Empire from 1580 to 1640).
  21. Ottoman Empire:
    • 12 million ducats tax revenue, at 3% tax rate, [6] gives economy of 400 million ducats
    • 400 million ducats = $4,667 million in 1913 value
    • $4,667 million 1913 dollars = $61,614 million 1990 dollars
  22. A. Lybyer, The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent, 181
  23. The combined GDP of Spain, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia (estimated as 50% of Italy), South America, Central America, Belgium and Mexico.
  24. Combined GDP of West Asia (excluding Iran), Eastern Europe (excluding later Russian Empire), Greece, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, according to Maddison (2010).
  25. Combined GDP of United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and South Africa, according to Maddison (2010).
  26. Maddison (2010)
  27. The combined GDP of the United Kingdom, British India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ceylon, Hong Kong, Singapore and South Africa was about $265 billion in 1870, in Maddison (2006).
  28. Combined GDP of West Asia (excluding Iran), Eastern Europe (excluding later Russian Empire), Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, according to Maddison (2010).
  29. The combined GDP of the United Kingdom, British India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ceylon, Malaya, Hong Kong, Singapore, Egypt, Ghana and South Africa is about $547 billion in 1913, in Maddison (2006). The combined GDP of the remaining territories was estimated by multiplying the average Asian (not including China, India or Japan) and African GDP per capita by the combined populations of the remaining Asian and African territories respectively.
  30. 30.00 30.01 30.02 30.03 30.04 30.05 30.06 30.07 30.08 30.09 30.10 30.11 30.12 The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present, p. 34
  31. Combined GDP of West Asia (excluding Iran) and Albania, according to Maddison (2010).

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

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