The following is a list of significant men and women known for being the father, mother, or considered the founders in a field, listed by category. In some fields the title of being the "father" is debatable.





Subject Father/Mother Reason
Aerial warfare Oswald Boelcke[1] The first to formalize rules of air fighting, which he presented as the Dicta Boelcke, also credited as being the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft
Atomic bomb Robert Oppenheimer.[2]
Leó Szilárd[3]
Blitzkrieg Heinz Guderian[4][5]
Hydrogen bomb Edward Teller[6]
Atomic submarine and "nuclear navy" Hyman G. Rickover[7][8][9]
Fourth Generation Warfare William S. Lind[citation needed]
French sailing navy Jean-Baptiste Colbert[10] Built on the fleet of France inherited from Cardinal Richelieu.
Military strategy Sun Tzu Wrote the seminal work The Art of War (6th century BC).
Hannibal Barca[11] Successfully employed military tactics such as the double-envelopment in the Second Punic War (3rd century BC).
Naval tactical studies Paul Hoste[12] Jesuit Professor of Mathematics at the Royal College of the Marine in Toulon; wrote L'Art des Armées Navales (1697)
Luftwaffe and Luftstreitkräfte Oswald Boelcke[13]
The Soviet Union's hydrogen bomb Andrei Sakharov[14]
United States Airborne William C. Lee[15] First commander of the parachute school at Fort Benning, Georgia.
United States Cavalry Kazimierz Pułaski[16] Brigadier-general and commander of the cavalry of the Continental Army (1770s).
United States Navy Commodore John Barry[17]
Captain John Paul Jones[18]




Subject Father/Mother Reason
American Football Walter Camp[19]
American soccer Steve Ross[20] Godfather, created the New York Cosmos soccer team and imported a number of well known international footballers to the team in an attempt to bring interest to soccer in the U.S.
Angling Izaak Walton[21] author of The Compleat Angler
Association football Ebenezer Cobb Morley[22]
Auto racing in Miami Ralph Sanchez[23] Godfather, credited for being the creator of the Miami Grand Prix and developer of the Homestead-Miami Speedway
Brazillian football Charles William Miller[24].
Baseball Henry Chadwick[25][26][27][28]
Basketball James Naismith
BMX Scot Breithaupt[29]
Modern Bodybuilding Eugen Sandow[30]
Harold Zinkin[31] Called so by Arnold Schwarzenegger during a press statement on his passing in 2004. Inventor of the modern exercise machines.
Modern Boxing James Figg[32]
James J. Corbett[citation needed]
Canadian rodeo O. Raymond Knight[33] coined the rodeo term Stampede and was world's first rodeo producer/rodeo stock contractor/rodeo champion in 1902
Drag racing Wally Parks[34] Founder of the NHRA and organized the first legitimate drag race.
Don Garlits[35] Considered to be one of the innovators of drag racing safety.
Eddie Hill[36] Regarded as the "Four Father of Drag Racing.
Drifting Kunimitsu Takahashi[37] Introduced an aggressive high speed cornering technique that became widely used for illicit purposes which eventually became a sport.
Modern figure skating Jackson Haines [38]
The Football Association Ebenezer Cobb Morley[22] Founder
Italian football James Richardson Spensley[39] Given due to his association with Genoa CFC and his contribution to the modern day variation of the game in Italy
William Garbutt[40] Laying the foundations of skilled coaching in Italian football
Freestyle BMX Bob Haro[41][42]
Funny Car Dick Landy[43]
Import drag racing Frank Choi[44] Hosted one of the first events specifially for import cars in the mid-1990s to keep owners out of street racing.
Japanese baseball Horace Wilson[45] Credited for introducing baseball in Japan
Hiroshi Hiraoka[46] Credited for establishing the first baseball team
Jogging Jim Fixx[47] Founding father
Karting Art Ingels[48] Developed the world's first kart (1956)
Lacrosse William George Beers[49][50][51][52] Codified the sport
American Motocross Edison Dye[53] Introduced motorcross to American riders
NASCAR Bill France, Sr.[54] Foundation of the sanctioning body for stock car racing
Road racing in the United States Cameron Argetsinger[55] Introduced the first U.S. auto race that was dedicated to road courses at Watkins Glen.
Rugby Football Union A. G. Guillemard[56]
modern sabre fencing Italo Santelli[57]
Florida Skateboarding Bruce Walker[58] godfather
East Coast Skateboarding Vinny Raffa[59] godfather
Skateboarding Skip Engblom[60] godfather
Tony Hawk[61] godfather
Snowboard Jake Burton[62]
Stock car racing Bill France, Sr.[63] Foundation of the sanctioning body for stock car racing
Supercross Mike Goodwin[64] Organized the first supercross race
Modern surfing Duke Kahanamoku[65]
Mixed Martial Arts Bruce Lee[66] Called so, by Dana White, president of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. For his experimentation into other styles and invention of Jeet Kune Do.



Subject Father/Mother Reason
Aerodynamics (modern) Sir George Cayley [67][68] Founding father of modern Aerodynamics. The first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight - weight, lift, drag, and thrust. Modern airplane design is based on those discoveries.
Architecture Imhotep[69] Built the first pyramid
Astronautics Konstantin Tsiolkovsky[70]

Robert H. Goddard[71]
Hermann Oberth[72]

Aviation Father Francesco Lana-Terzi[73] Book: Prodromo alla Arte Maestra (1670). First to describe the geometry and physics of a flying vessel.
Compact Disc Kees Immink[74]
Computing Charles Babbage[75] Inventor of the Analytical Engine which was never constructed in his lifetime.
Computer Andre Truong Trong Thi[76] Father of the personal computer.
Konrad Zuse[77] Invented world's first functional program-controlled computer.
Alan Turing[78][79] Was a secret code breaker during WWII and invented the Turing machine (1936).
John von Neumann[80] Became "intrigued" with Turing's universal machine and later emphasised the importance of the stored-program concept for electronic computing (1945), including the possibility of allowing the machine to modify its own program in useful ways while running.
John V. Atanasoff[81] Invented the digital computer in the 1930s
Computer Program Ada Lovelace[82] Recognized by historians as the writer of the world's first computer program which was for the Charles Babbage Analytical Engine, but was never complete within either her or his lifetime.
Cybernetics Norbert Wiener[83][84]
Perfumery[85] Al-Kindi (Alkindus) Founded the perfume industry.
Photography Louis Daguerre[86]
Nicéphore Niépce[87]
William Henry Fox Talbot[88]
Thomas Wedgwood[89]
Robotics Al-Jazari[90] Invented the first programmable humanoid robot.


Subject Father/Mother Reason
Air conditioning Willis Carrier [91]
Ekranoplan Rostislav Alexeev
Helicopter Igor Sikorsky [92] Invented the first successful helicopter, upon which further designs were based.
Internet Louis Pouzin
Vinton Cerf[93][94][95]
Robert E. Kahn[96]
Instant noodle Momofuku Ando[97] Inventor of the instant noodle, also founder of Nissin Foods to produce and market them.
Japanese television Kenjiro Takayanagi[98][99]
Jet engine Frank Whittle[100][101]
Laser Charles Townes
Lightning prediction system Alexander Stepanovich Popov The first lightning prediction system, the Lightning detector, was invented in 1894 by Alexander Stepanovich Popov.
Marine chronometer John Harrison[102]
Microprocessor Marcian Hoff[103]
Masatoshi Shima[104]
Pentium microprocessor Vinod Dham[105][106]
Personal computer Steve Wozniak[107]
Andre Truong Trong Thi[76]
Programmable logic controller Dick Morley[citation needed]
Radio Alexander Stepanovich Popov [108]
Lee De Forest[109][110][111]
Guglielmo Marconi[112]
Jagdish Chandra Bose[113]
Nikola Tesla[114]
The research of these pioneers led to the development of the radio
Radio (Radio broadcasting) Reginald Fessenden[citation needed]
David Sarnoff[citation needed]
Radio (FM radio) Edwin H. Armstrong[citation needed] Obtained the first FCC license to operate an FM station in Alpine, New Jersey at approximately 50 megahertz (1939)
radiotelephony Reginald Fessenden[115][116]
SGML Charles Goldfarb[117]
Telephone Antonio Meucci [118],

Alexander Graham Bell[119]

See Invention of the telephone
Television Philo T. Farnsworth[120],

Vladimir Zworykin[121],[122]

John Logie Baird[123][124]

Co-Inventors of the Electronic Television. Farnsworth invented the Image dissector while Zworykin created the Iconoscope, both fully electronic forms of Television. Logie Baird invented the worlds first working Television system, also the first electronic color television system.
Tokamak Lev Artsimovich
Tube structure Fazlur Khan[125] Invented the tube structural system and first employed it in his designs for the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments, John Hancock Center and Sears Tower.
World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee[126]
Visual Basic Alan Cooper[127]
XML Jon Bosak[128]

Towns and citiesEdit

Subject Father/Mother Reason
Lan Kwai Fong Allan Zeman[129] Noted for turning a small square of streets in Central, into a thriving bar and night life districts in Hong Kong.


Subject Father/Mother Reason
20th century American car industry Henry Ford[130] Noted for introducing a simple and affordable car for the ordinary Americans masses.
American Interstate Highway System Dwight D. Eisenhower[131]
High-performance VW industry Gene Berg[132]
Hot rod Ed Winfield[133]
Import Car Culture RJ DeVera[134] Influential for popularising the import car scene in the mid-1990s.
Monster truck Bob Chandler[135] Famed for building Bigfoot, which was the first to be capable of driving over cars and subsequently became one of the most famous monster truck in history
Mountain bike Gary Fisher[136]
Route 66 Cyrus Avery[137]
Traffic safety William Phelps Eno[138]
Yellow school bus Frank W. Cyr[139]

See also Edit

References Edit

  2. J Robert Oppenheimer
  3. Bernstein, Barton J: "Introduction" to The Voice of the Dolphins and Other Stories (expanded edition), by Leo Szilard. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992, p.5: "Its author, Leo Szilard, now dead nearly three decades, was a Hunganian émigré scientist and one of many putative fathers of the A-bomb."
  4. Chris Trueman. "Heinz Guderian". Retrieved on 2009-05-26. 
  5. Chris Shimp (March 1, 2001). "General Heinz Guderian: The Father of Blitzkrieg". Retrieved on 2009-05-26. 
  6. "'Father of H-Bomb' Agrees to Rally Scientific Talent." The New York Times, December 31, 1965, p.19. Story opens: "Albany, Dec. 30—Governor Rockefeller will make an intensified attack on air pollution with the help of Dr. Edward Teller, the 'father of the hydrogen bomb.'"
  7. Jeffries, John (2001). Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 0-8232-2110-5. , p.162: "'Admiral Rickover', said Powell, '"father of the atomic submarine", is a great naval officer... It is not equally clear that he is a careful and thorough student of American education.'"
  8. "Submarine Range Called Unlimited; Rickover Says Atomic Craft Can Cruise Under Ice To North Pole and Beyond," The New York Times, December 6, 1957, p.33: "The admiral, who is often called the 'Father of the Atomic Submarine'..."
  9. Galantin, I. J. (1997). Submarine Admiral: From Battlewagons to Ballistic Missiles. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06675-8. , p. 217: "Chet Holifield... member of the JCAE... said 'Of all the men I dealt with in public service, at least one will go down in history: Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, the father of the nuclear Navy.'"
  10. Warner, Oliver (1973). Great Battle Fleets. Hamlyn. p. 98. ISBN 0-600-33913-0 ISBN 978-0-600-33913-7. 
  11. Ayrault Dodge, Theodore (1995). Hannibal: A History of the Art of War Among the Carthagonians and Romans Down to the Battle of Pydna, 168 BC. Da Capo Press. 
  12. Warner, Oliver (1973). Great Battle Fleets. Hamlyn. p. 96. ISBN 0-600-33913-0 ISBN 978-0-600-33913-7. 
  14. "Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights". Center for the History of Physics. American Institute of Physics. Retrieved on 2007-03-03. 
  15. "General William C. Lee: Father of the Airborne". Retrieved on 2008-07-12. 
  16. Yale Richmond (1995). From Da to Yes: understanding the East Europeans. Intercultural Press. p. 72. ISBN 1-877864-30-7, ISBN 978-1-877864-30-8. 
  17. John Barry Kelly. "Commodore Barry". Retrieved on 2007-06-16. 
  18. Hoover Library, "Revolutionary America! Where Did We Go From There? The Continental Navy -- John Paul Jones"
  21. New International Encyclopedia. New York City: Dodd, Mead and Company. 1914. pp. Fathers. 
  22. 22.0 22.1
  24. Hamilton, Aidan (1998). An Entirely Different Game, The British Influence on Brazilian Football. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 1-84018-041-2. 
  25. "Henry Chadwick, Chad, The Father of Base Ball [sic]"; National Baseball Hall of Fame bio,[1]. Not a player, but a journalist and organizer, the Hall of Fame credits him as "inventor of the box score" and "author of the first rule-book."
  26. Template:Gutenberg: "Henry Chadwick, the veteran journalist, upon whom the honored sobriquet of 'Father of Base Ball[sic]' rests so happily and well, appears in portraiture, and so well preserved in his physical manhood that his sixty-three years rest lightly upon his well timed life."
  27. "Matty" at Harvard; The New York Times, February 16, 1909, p. 7: "Charles H. Ebbets, Chairman of the Chadwick Monument Committee, has announced that the contract has been awarded for a suitable monument to be placed on the plot in Greenwood[sic] Cemetery where the remains of the late Henry Chadwick, 'the Father of Baseball,' repose."
  28. Collins, Glen (2004): "Ground as Hallowed as Cooperstown," The New York Times, April 1, 2004. (Article on baseball notables interred in the Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn) "Among the nearly 600,000 people buried there are no less than four pioneers who were accorded the title 'Father of Baseball' in the popular press: Henry Chadwick, Duncan Curry, William Tucker and William Wheaton....The memorial for Henry Chadwick bears a 'Father of Base Ball' inscription.... [Duncan] Curry, first president of the Knickerbocker Baseball Club, is immortalized with a monument that proudly dubs him 'Father of Baseball' because he headed the club that scholars say first codified many of the game's rules...."
  33. Hicken, J.O. Ed. "Raymond Roundup 1902–1967". Lethbridge, Alberta Canada: The Lethbridge Herald Company, Ltd., 1967. pages 243 and 519.
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  39. "English Players in Italy". Retrieved on August 2007. 
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  57. Santelli bio including several references backing up the statement, including a quote from Dr. William Gaugler Dec. 1997: "I am, in fact, only two generations removed from the 'father of modern sabre' [referring to Santelli]".
  66. Wickert, Marc. 2004. Dana White and the future of UFC. See Wikiquotes for the text.
  67. "Sir George Carley (British Inventor and Scientist)". Britannica. Retrieved on 2009-07-26. "English pioneer of aerial navigation and aeronautical engineering and designer of the first successful glider to carry a human being aloft." 
  68. "The Pioneers: Aviation and Airmodelling". Retrieved on 2009-07-26. "Sir George Cayley, is sometimes called the 'Father of Aviation'. A pioneer in his field, he is credited with the first major breakthrough in heavier-than-air flight. He was the first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight - weight, lift, drag, and thrust - and their relationship and also the first to build a successful human carrying glider." 
  69. Albert Gallatin Mackey, The Builder Magazine, December 1922, Volume VIII, Number 12, Part XVI.
  70. Tsiolkovskiy
  71. Goddard
  72. Oberth
  73. Woods, Thomas. How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, p 36. (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005); ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
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  75. Lee, J.A.N. (1995). International Biographical Dictionary of Computer Pioneers. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1-884964-47-8. 
  76. 76.0 76.1 A Talk with the Father of Computing, Wired Magazine
  77. Konrad Zuse's versus John von Neumann's Computer Concepts
  78. "Alan Turing - Time 100 People of the Century". Time. Retrieved on 2009-06-13. "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine" 
  79. 'Father of the computer' honoured - BBC News, Monday, 7 June 2004
  80. The Modern History of Computing - Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  81. Bruner, Jeffrey. "Atanasoff, father of the computer, dies at 91". Rebuilding the ABC. Ames Laboratory. Retrieved on 2006-07-28. 
  82. Ada Lovelace
  83. Belzer, Belzer (1977). Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 7 - Curve Fitting to Early Development.... Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-262-73009-X. , p. 55: "It is probably not an accident that the 'father of cybernetics,' Norbert Wiener, ..."
  84. Wiener, Norbert (1965) [1948]. Cybernetics, Second Edition: or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. MIT Press. ISBN 0-8247-2257-4.  (Wiener is credited with coining the term in its common modern usage)
  85. Martin Levey (1973), Early Arabic Pharmacology, EJ Brill, Leiden.
    Dunlop, D.M. (1975), Arab Civilization, Librairie du Liban.
    (cf. Womens Arabian Perfume)
  86. Barger, M. Susan; William B. White (2000). The Daguerreotype: Nineteenth-Century Technology and Modern Science. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6458-5.  p. 20, "Louis Jacques Monde Daguerre: The second father of photography is Daguerre..."
  87. Barger, M. Susan; William B. White (2000). The Daguerreotype: Nineteenth-Century Technology and Modern Science. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6458-5.  p. 17, "The first father of photography was Nicéphore Niépce...."
  88. Ellis, Roger (2001). Who's Who in Victorian Britain. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1640-6. , p. 116: cites book title: "A. H. Booth: William Henry Fox Talbot: father of photography, 1965".
  89. Booth, Martin (1999). Opium: A History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-20667-4.  p. 30 "Robert Hall, the divine, was addicted [to opium], as was Thomas Wedgwood, the father of photography."
  90. Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, Mar 11, 2006.
  91. The Father of Cool - Willis Haviland Carrier and Air Conditioning
  92. Igor Sikorsky is considered to be the "father" of helicopters not because he invented the first. He is called that because he invented the first successful helicopter, upon which further designs were based, an article from by Mary Bellis
  93. Gore Deserves Internet Credit, Some Say, a March 1999 Washington Post article
  94. Making Televised Emergency Information Accessible from the Gallaudet University website
  95. Although it's a title he objects to (see Interview with Vinton Cerf, from a January 2006 article in Government Computer News), Cerf is willing to call himself one of the Internet's fathers, citing Bob Kahn in particularly as being someone with whom he should share that title.
  96. Kahn do, No (2007). " Father of internet warns against Net Neutrality", The Register, Thursday 18th January
  98. "Kenjiro Takayanagi: The Father of Japanese Television". NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories. Retrieved on 2006-12-09. 
  99. "Kenjiro Takayanagi, Electrical Engineer, 91 (obituary)". New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-12-09. 
  100. BBC NEWS | UK | England | Coventry/Warwickshire | Sculpture to jet engine inventor
  101. Aircraft Engine
  102. John Harrison
  104. "Kosaku Inagaki’s Home Page". Kyoto University. Retrieved on 2010-04-01. 
  105. The Technology Trailblazer: Vinod Dham. University of Cincinnati.
  106. Priya Ganapati at Techfest 99, IIT Bombay.
  107. [2]
  108. The "The First Electronic Church of America" Web site poses the question: "Russia's Popov: Did he 'invent' radio?" According to this account, Alexander Popov is the "radio man." Among other things, it notes that Popov reported sending and receiving a wireless signal across a 600 yards distance in 1895. Two years later, it says, he set up a shore station at Kronstadt and equipped the Russian navy cruiser Africa with his wireless communications apparatus to provide ship-to-shore communication., an article by Stan Horzepa wondering who is the father of the radio
  109. De Forest, Lee (1950). Father of Radio: The Autobiography of Lee de Forest. Chicago: Wilcox & Follett.  (This book sold fewer than a thousand copies and is accordingly rare and expensive today).
  110. Dennis, Everette E..; Edward Pease (1994). Radio—The Forgotten Medium. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56593-873-9. , p. 198: "the egotistical Lee De Forest who discovered, however unwittingly, the audion tube that allowed him to proclaim himself 'the father of radio'"
  111. Shurkin, Joseph (1996). Engines of the Mind: The Evolution of the Computer from the Mainframes to Microprocessors. W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-31471-5. , p. 132: "De Forest, who was not a modest man, called himself the 'Father of Radio,' an epithet whose accuracy is debatable."
  112. Guglielmo Marconi - the "father of radio"
  113. A. K. Sen (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science", Microwave Symposium Digest 2 (8-13), p. 557-560.
  114. Ask the average person "Who invented radio?" and the average answer will be "Marconi." Ask the same question on the Internet, and the average answer will not likely be "Marconi." Instead, try one of the following on for size: Nikola Tesla, Alexander Popov, Oliver Lodge, Reginald Fessenden, Heinrich Hertz, Mahlon Loomis, Nathan Stubblefield, James Clerk Maxwell and even Thomas Edison, among others, an article by Stan Horzepa wondering who is the father of the radio
  115. McLuhan, Marshall; Barrington Nevitt (1972). Take Today; the Executive as Dropout. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-187830-7.  "Fessenden, the Forgotten Father of 'Wireless' Telephony" (section heading)[3]
  116. Zuill, William S. (2001): The Forgotten Father of Radio", American Heritage of Science and Technology, 17(1)40–47, as cited in Silverman, Steve (2003). Lindbergh's Artificial Heart: More Fascinating True Stories From Einstein's Refrigerator. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-3340-0.  p. 160
  117. XML for Newcomers and Managers - Part I
  118. Meucci was recognised as the first inventor of the telephone by the United States House of Representatives, in its resolution 269 dated 11 June 2002 ("if Meucci had been able to pay the $10 fee to maintain the caveat after 1874, no patent could have been issued to Bell").
  119. Van Meggelen, Jim; Jared Smith, Leif Madsen (2005). Asterisk: The Future of Telephony. O'Reilly. ISBN 0-596-00962-3. , p.190: "Although Alexander Graham Bell is most famously remembered as the father of the telephone, the reality is that during the latter half of the 1800s dozens of minds were at work on the project of carrying voice over telegraph lines."
    . Society of Television Engineers. URL accessed January 20, 2008. "Isn't it about time that Philo Farnsworth gets some credit???
  121. "Zworykin at IEEE Global History Network". Retrieved on 2008-03-03. ""the oft-called Father of Television Vladimir Zworykin"" 
  122. "Zworykin at Museum.TV". Retrieved on 2008-03-03. ""inventor Vladimir Zworykin is often described as "the father of television". "" 
  123. "John Logie Baird: TV Inventor". Retrieved on 2009-07-26. "John Logie Baird invented Television in 1926. His initial TV system was electro-mechanical. He (later) embraced electronic TV and developed the worlds first color television system." 
  124. "The World's First High Definition Color Television System". Retrieved on 2009-07-26. 
  125. Weingardt, Richard (2005), Engineering Legends, ASCE Publications, p. 75, ISBN 0784408017 
  126. Three loud cheers for the father of the web, 28/01/2005,
  127. Cooper, Alan, Why I am called "the Father of Visual Basic" "Mitchell Waite called me the "father of Visual Basic" in the foreword to what I believe was the first book ever published for VB, called the Visual Basic How-To (now in its second edition, published by The Waite Group Press). I thought the appellation was an appropriate one, and frequently use the quoted phrase as my one-line biography."
  128. "XML Father" leaves W3C for OASIS
  131. Federal Highway Administration [4]. URL accessed July 21, 2006.
  137. Steil, Tim (2000). Route 66. MBI Publishing Company. p. 18. ISBN 0-7603-0747-4. "Avery, though dubbed the 'Father of Route 66' by some, was a political appointee who also left office the next year." 
  138. Eno Transportation Foundation [5]. URL accessed August 23, 2006.
  139. Watson, Rollin J. (2002). The School As a Safe Haven. Bergen Garvey/Greenwood. p. 30. ISBN 0-89789-900-8. "The modern school bus began in a conference in 1939 called by Frank W. Cyr, the 'Father of the Yellow School' bus, who was a professor at Teachers College, Columbia University. At that meeting, Cyr urged the standardization of the school bus. Participants came up with the standard yellow color and some basic construction standards. Cyr had... found that children were riding in all sorts of vehicles—one district, he found, was painting their busses red, white, and blue to instill patriotism." 
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