Iran is a country settled in Western Asia in the region of Persia. Its current ruling government is the Islamic Republic of Iran. It currently borders Armenia and Azerbaijan to the Northwest. To the north is the Caspian Sea above Mazandaran, and in the northeast is Turkmenistan. In the east, is seen Afghanistan and Pakistan. In the south, is seen the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; in the west, Turkey and Iraq. It is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the entire world. There is an estimation of 82.8 million people living in Iran and Iran is the world's 17th country with the highest population. Tehran is the country's present-day capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.
- The following is a list of notable periods. For a more comprehensive list, see Persia (Timeline)