The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions"[1]), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America,[2] and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.[3] Its political and administrative structure "was the most sophisticated found among native peoples" in the Americas.[4] The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.


  1. McEwan 2008, p. 221.
  2. Schwartz, Glenn M.; Nichols, John J. (15 August 2010). [[[:Template:Google books]] After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies]. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-2936-0. Template:Google books. 
  3. Moseley, Michael E. (2001), The Incas and their Ancestors, London: Thames and Hudson, p. 7
  4. Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America, 7th edition. New York: Oxford University Press 2010, p. 19
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