Predynastic Period Edit

Even as civilization was developing in Mesopotamia, it was also developing within Egypt. Historically, it appears that the Early Egyptians appear sometime around 5,000 BCE. At that point they were using brick and wood, and had begun working in stone. Whereas the Mesopotamians used clay tablets for their writings, the early Egyptians instead used an early form of paper known as papyrus.

As a matter of custom, there has been a tendency to divide the history of Egypt into dynasties. These dynasties in turn can be combined into periods. Anything prior to about 3100 BCE is considered to be predynastic. It was during the Protodynastic period that Egypt was initially united as a single nation. The periods and the dynasties associated with them are as follows:

Early Dynastic Period: 1st and 2nd dynasties. Edit

At this point, there was a tendency for Egyptians to think of themselves as being a people of two lands. The earliest known Pharaoh of the First Dynasty was Menes.

Old Kingdom : 3rd through 6th dynasties Edit

It was during the time of the 4th dynasty that the art of embalming was developed, leading eventually to the process of mummification. With the death of the last Pharaoh of the 6th dynasty, the Old Kingdom collapsed and Egypt fell into a period of disunion.

First Intermediate Period: 7th through early 11th Edit

Middle Kingdom: 11th through 14th Edit

Began approximately around 2055 BCE with Amenemhat I reuniting all Egypt under one Pharaoh.

Second Intermediate Period: 15 through 17th Edit

It is during this period that Egypt was finally invaded from outside. While being invaded and conquered was already something of a routine in Mesopotamia, for Egypt it was a rather new experience for which there was precious little preparation. As a result the Hykso conquest of Egypt met little effective resistance, as the Egyptian were introduced to the effectiveness of chariot based warfare. Forming the 15th dynasty around 1674 BCE, they ruled until around 1567 BCE. As if to confuse things further, there was also a 16th dynasty running in parallel time outside the immediate control of the Hyksos, but apparently subject to Hyksos authority.

Also competing with 15th dynasty was the 17th dynasty based in Thebes. After over a century of domination by the Hyksos to the north, the Thebans were able to unite Egyptians through a common hatred of the still 'foreign' Hyksos leading to a successful rebellion against the Hyksos and their subsequent expulsion for Egypt.

New Kingdom: 18th through 20th Edit

With the Hyksos banished, 18th Dynasty was initiated under the rulership of Ahmose. With the start of the 18th Dynasty, the New Kingdom became a period of expansion and prosperity.

Third Intermediate Period: 21st through 25th Edit

Late Period: 26th through 31st Edit

After the 30th dynasty collapse in 343 BCE, Egypts ceases to operate as an independent nation.

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