Darius I or Dārayavahuš in Old Persian, was the third king the Persian Empire ruling from 550-486 BCE. He was the ruler of the Empire at its peak, ruling from West Asia, the Caucasus all the way into the Balkans, most of the Black Sea, parts of the North Caucasus, Central Asia and into the Indus Valley's far eastern region. He also managed to conquer parts of the north and northeast of Africa which includes Egypt, eastern Libya and a coastal province of Sudan.
Darius overthrew Guamata and became the new king of the Achaemenid Empire from the alleged magus usurper of Bardiya, he had assistance from six other Persian noble families and a coronation was the morning after. Darius was a new king and he fought rebellions throughout his entire kingdom and finished them all off. Darius wanted to punish Athens and Eretria for aiding the enemies in the Ionian Revolt and he wanted to subjugate Greece. He failed at the Battle of Marathon and Darius succeeded in re-subjugating Thrace with expansion of the empire through conquests of Macedon, the Cyclades, the island of Naxos, and the city of Eretria.
Darius divided his empire into provinces and placed satraps (governors). A new uniform monetary system was created and the official language of the empire was Aramaic, he also built roads and introduced standard weights and measures which helped make the empire centralised and unified. Darius worked on construction projects throughout his time of ruling the empire where he focused on Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Babylon, and Egypt. He dedicated a cliff-face known as Behistun Inscription to record his conquests.
The historical demographic estimates of Darius I's empire was that he ruled over approximately 50 million people which was at the time, 44% of the world's population.
References[edit | edit source]
- Collins, John J.; Manning, J. G. (2016) (in en). Revolt and Resistance in the Ancient Classical World and the Near East: In the Crucible of Empire. BRILL. p. 99. ISBN 9789004330184. https://books.google.com/books?id=0xP0DQAAQBAJ&lpg=PA99.
- Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, (Taylor & Francis, 1979), 54–55.
- The Behistun Inscription
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